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Final Exam Review Exam is Thursday December 13, 10:00 a.m. – 12 noon.100 pointsIn addition to the last chapters we covered in lecture since Exam 3 , be sure to know the fiber categories on Page 16 . We have not had any questions that required you to know where all of the fibers fit in the categories . AND the properties of each of the categories ( such as burning behavior , hydrophilic or hydrophobic , etc ) Red = Burns Rapidly w/o self diminishing Orange = Burns and Melts Yellow : Burns but self diminishes Blue : Fire is DENIED! Purple = Unsure NATURAL FIBERS MANUFACTURED FIBERSChapter 23: Textile PrintingWhat is printing? Dyeing in a localized area to produce a pattern or design.What are the printing methods we discussed in class? How are they different from each other? The printing methods include Direct, Resist, Discharge, and Heat Transfer. Direct: Applying directly to the surface of the textile or yarns.Resist: When fabric is coated with a substance in certain areas to prevent the dye from working to create a pattern.Discharge: Putting a paste on the fabric that removes dye in certain areas.Heat Transfer: Dyes are printed onto a paper base and then transferred from the paper to the fabric. The print is vaporized and deposits on the fabric.What is blotch printing? Both a colored background and design motifs are printed onto the fabric. How is it different from overprinting? Over printing is when the design is just printed over a previously dyed fabric/textile. How can you tell which was done? Blotch printing is shown when the pigments or dye is absorbed and shows through to the other side, while over printing simply stays on the surface and the pigments are not absorbed.What is warp printing? Warp yarns are printed before they are woven into a fabric. How does it differ from true ikat (tie-dyed yarn)? Sections of warp yarns are dyed by resist methods, differs because true ikat is woven with it coated warp yarns then dyed in a bath.How is screen printing done? Color is applied to a textile/fabric by putting the screen over fabric, then by placing wax stencil to prevent dye from touching certain areas to create a design or pattern. How is it different from roller printing? Designs are printed on engraved rollers then physically transferred onto the fabric.What is devore (burn-out)? Blended fabrics are printed with an agent that will destroy certain types of fibers in the blend which creates a design that’s semitransparent on an opaque surface. What type of fabric must it be used on? Fabrics must contain a blend of fibers to produce an effect.Chapter 24: Physical and Mechanical FinishesWhat is the difference between aesthetic and functional finishes? Aesthetic finishes change the textiles appearance, hand, and/or texture. Functional finishes improve the performance of the textile aka; Water/Fire/Bacterial resistance.How are finishes classified based on how long they remain in or on the fabric? The 3 types of timed durability is Permanent: Often to utilize the characteristics of synthetic fibers, this finish last the lifetime of the product. Ex- Heat sensitive fibers subjected to finishes involving heat (Fire suit)Durable: Involves Resin(Chemical) or Mechanical treatments, this finish usually has a certain lifespan. Ex- Children’s sleepwear has a fire resistance finish that lasts about 50 washes.Temporary: Is removed after 1- 2 washes. Ex- Starch finishes.What types of fibers can be heat-set permanently? Thermoplastic Fibers.How can a durable finish be applied to a natural fiber? If a natural fiber is treated with a type of resin first then a durable finish can be applied.Are there any types of finishes that can be applied at home by the consumer? Yes, calendering along with brushing and stone washing can be done at home now.What is a calender? A Calender is a set of heated, cylindrical rollers that flattens then smoothes out a fabric/textile with speed, pressure and heat. A Schreiner calender? The same basic design except one of the rollers is embossed w/ about 250 fine, diagonal lines per inch. It creates a softer luster and hand Ex- Bed sheets. A friction calender? It operates with one heated roller moving rapidly over the surface of a textile going at a much slower speed. The fabric is usually saturated with a starch (temporary) or resin (permanent) then dried slightly before being fed into the machine.An embossing calender? An embossing calender is made with 2 rollers. One has a raised/lowered engraving of a design, the other is made of paper and has a smooth surface. First the design is pressed onto the paper roller then the fabric is passed between both rollers each one works together to mold the shape of the design into the fabric. (Permanent with thermoplastics, Durable with resin treated fabric, and Temporary on others.)How is fabric polished, glazed or cired? By way of calendering: Polishing/Glazing is done by adding starch to the textile then having it passed between heated rollers at high speed. Cireing is made by the same friction calendering techniques except its effects are produced on natural fibers with waxes or thermoplastic resins, while the thermoplastics must be specifically heat sensitive . The outcome is a permanent WET look caused by slight fusing of thermoplastic fibers/resins.What is moiré? A “Wood Grain” design finish applied to ribbed fabrics (Taffeta, Faille, Bangaline), of which there are two methods.1. Uses a roller with an etched design that is a repeatable pattern, it’s durable on thermoplastic fibers and cellulose treated with resin.2. 2 lengths of same fabric placed face to face with one slightly off-grain ( Grain=Angle of interlacing W+F yarns) then calendered under extreme pressure to create a random moire pattern. Pattern is destroyed on Natural textiles not treated with resins. How can embossing be made permanent? Only permanent with use of resins and thermoplastic fibers.What is brushing and napping? Ways of altering pile fabrics.Napping: Fiber ends are brushed up onto the fabric surface by hook like projections to create a deeper pileBrushing: Fabrics made from staple fibers must be brushed to remove loose surface fibers.What is dimensional stability in fabric? The ability of a fiber or yarn to withstand shrinking or stretching. What is fulling of wool? Wool or animal hair fabrics are treated with moisture, heat, soap, and pressure

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FSU CTE 1401C - Final Exam Review

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