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SOC 101 Monday, February 15 LectureEmile Durkheim and Social IntegrationAs we discussed in the overview of his book, Suicide, Durkheim’s main focus is social integration: the degree to which people feel a part of socialgroupsDurkheim's primary interest was what happens as societies begin to modernize, when they begin to industrialize and labor becomes increasinglyspecialized. Durkheim further theorized that social integration -- the ways in which individuals are connected and attached to one another within a society -- exists in two different forms, or solidarities. Mechanical Solidarity – Social cohesion based upon the likeness and similarities among the individuals in a society, and largely dependent on common rituals and routines - Common among small and/or isolated homogenous populations- More cooperation, than competition, among members- Social links are based on custom, obligation and emotion. - Members share same values and beliefs - The notion of individualism and individual freedom is undeveloped - The status of the individual is determined by kinship - People are virtually alike in their consciousness Durkheim writes: "In societies where this type of solidarity [mechanical] is highly developed, the individual is not his own master...Solidarity is, literally something which the society possesses." [excerpt from The Divisionof Labor in Society])In contrast:Organic Solidarity – Social cohesion based upon the mutual dependence that individuals in moreadvanced society have on each other Common among industrial societies as the division of labor and 1specialization increases. In modern, industrial societies, individuals no longer perform the same tasks, have the same interests, nor necessarily share the same perspectives on life. This does not cause a society to fail or disintegrate. Organic solidarity is formed. “Like the organs within an animal, individuals perform certain specific functions, but rely on the well-being and successful performance of other individuals. If one organ fails, the rest of them fail as well. A body--or in thiscase a society--cannot function at all if one part crumbles. This reliance upon each other for social (and even physical) survival is the source of organic solidarity.In conclusion, human behavior cannot be understood simply in individualistic terms; we must always examine the social forces that affect people’s lives.”Challenging Mainstream Sociology: Silenced Voices in Early American Sociology Ida B. Wells (1862-1931)Social analyst and activist who wrote and protested against many forms of racism and sexism during the late 19th and early 20th century. She protested Jim Crow segregation laws, founded a Black women’s suffrage movement, and became one of the founding members of the NAACP. Her most famous works on lynchings are Southern Horrors (1892) and The Red Record (1895).In Southern Horrors, Wells challenged the common justification for lynchingof Black men for rape and other crimes involving white women. SIn The Red Record, she used lynching statistics from the Chicago Tribune todemonstrate how the right to a fair trial and equality before the law did not 2extend to African American men and women.Jane Addams (1860-1935)Research on everyday lives of immigrants from eastern and southern EuropeFocused on their adaptation to city life --crime, family problems, unemploymentShe conducted her research from Hull House -- a settlement house (a community center) in downtown Chicago Published her findings in Hull House Maps and Papers (1895)Addam’s work is significant because: Her work was known among sociologists at the time but marginalized The all-male Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago agreed with Addam’s findings regarding immigrant adaptation but Tension between Addam’s research/advocacy and the University’s ‘scientific’ approach reflected gendered divisionsThe gender split became realized in early 1900s in two disciplines:sociology ---- scientific ----- male dominatedsocial work ---- applied --- female dominatedW.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963)First black scholar to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard was a prominent Black scholar and co-founder of the NAACP. His work addressed racial divisiveness in U.S. society.Largely disregarded by mainstream sociologists until a ‘Du Bois 3renaissance’ in the late 1990s. Now considered a founding father of American sociologyStructural Racism His book, The Philadelphia Negro (1899) Showed how poverty among African Americans in the United States was primarily the result of racial discrimination.Applying rigorous methods, Du Bois’ studies and subsequent writing treatedsociology as a science, employing empirical research and quantitative as well as qualitative analysis. This was in contrast to the prevailing method atthe time, in which observations were so superficial that the analyst might have merely driven by without taking the time or effort to understand the community under study.Du Bois’ methodology stood in stark contrast to this. Embedding himself in one of Philadelphia’s historic black communities, his study is considered one of the first examples of scientifically framed and conducted sociology.Du Bois uncovered a spectrum of factors contributing to community ills such as poverty and crime. None of these included the alleged inferiority of African-Americans. African Americans were forced to live in two worlds, a white one and a black one.In a first for sociology, Du Bois combined his research with census data to create visual illustrations of his findings in bar graphs. Through this combination of methods, he clearly illustrated the realities of racism and how it impacted the lives and opportunities of this community, providing much-needed evidence in the fight to disprove the supposed cultural and intellectual inferiority of Black people.'Double-Consciousness'The Souls of Black Folk (1903) Du Bois's experience of growing up to illustrate the psycho-socio effects of racism.4Du Bois asserted racism prevents Black people from having true self-consciousness, and instead forces them to have double-consciousness, wherein they have an understanding of themselves1. within their families and community2. but also must view themselves through the eyes of White others who see them as different and

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