UB SOC 101 - Social Change and the Environment (5 pages)

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Social Change and the Environment

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Social Change and the Environment


The social movements that affect our world today

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Soc 101 - Introduction to Sociology
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SOC101 1nd Edition Lecture 21 Outline of Current Lecture I Social Change and the Environment II What is Social Change III Social Change A shift in the characteristics of culture and society Four Social Revolutions Humans domesticated plants and animals 11 050 BCE Invented the plow 8 000 BCE Invented the steam engine early 1700s AD Invented the microchip 1949 AD Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft IV V Community to Society Gemeinschaft lives are built around reciprocal obligations Gesellschaft human relationships are less personal and indirect rationally constructed in the interest of efficiency Industrial Revolution and Capitalism Modernization the transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies Karl Marx Max Weber Social Movements These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Social movements often reveal the cutting edge of social change VI Conflict Power and Global Politics VII Geopolitics politics particularly international relations influenced by geography A G7 Plus A coalition of 8 countries formed after WWII Russia was originally not part of this group but was later added to align power and divide global areas of dominance B 4 Threats to the G7 Plus Conflict within Resurgence of China Ethnic rivalries and conflicts Smoldering embers of the Cold War C The Growing Relevance of Africa Untapped Markets AFRICOM VIII Theories and Processes of Social Change A Evolutionary Unilinear all societies follow the same path each evolves from simpler to more complex Lewis Morgan 1877 3 Stages savagery barbarism and civilization Multilinear Different routes lead to the same stage of development Cultural progress VIV Cyclical Theories Civilizations are like biological organisms Arnold Toynbee 1946 Each civilization faces challenges to its existence Oswald Spengler 1926 1928 The Decline of the West IX Conflict over Power and Resources Marx s Dialectical process of history Each arrangement of power a thesis contains contradictions antitheses which make the arrangement unstable and which must be resolved the new arrangement of power synthesis contains its own contradictions This process continues throughout history VIII Ogburn s Theory A William Ogburn Technology changes society by three processes Invention combining existing elements and materials to form new ones Discovery a new way of seeing reality Diffusion the spread of an invention material and or social discovery or ideas from one area to another IX Cultural lag Human behavior that lags behind technological innovations X Evaluation One directional Makes humans sound passive XI Technology Changes Lives A What is technology Tools items used to accomplish the task Procedures methods techniques action necessary to produce tools Skills the ability needed to use tools It s the artificial means to extend human ability XII Sociological Significance of Technology A Technology produced fundamental changes in Production Worker Owner Relations Ideology Conspicuous Consumption Family Relationships B Automobile Henry Ford s Model T 1909 Displaced Existing Technology Effects on Cities Changes in Architecture Changes in Dating and Sexual Norms Effects on Women s Roles C Microchip Changes in social interactions Education Business and Finance International Conflict D Cyberspace and Social Inequality a Perpetuate Inequalities Information haves and have nots b Reduce Inequalities A passport out of poverty XIII Economic Growth and the Environment Faster paced production means faster paced destruction Sustainable environment a world system which takes into account the limits of the environment produces enough material goods for everyone s needs and leaves a heritage of a sound environment for the next generation Toxic Wastes Fossil Fuels and Global Warming Energy Shortage The Rain Forests XVI Toxic Sites in Western New York XIV XV The EPA The Superfund Program A https environmentaljusticetv wordpress com 2013 12 17 special interviewwith sanjay gupta lois gibbs superfund turns 30 B Environmental Protection Agency Government agency tasked with protecting environment and health Created in 1970 C Superfund Program nickname for law requiring EPA to clean up contamination Created in 1980 D National Priorities List NPL Properties marked for remediation cleanup Problems with the NPL A High scientific standards of proof Must pass Hazard Ranking System HRS screening Assessment based on limited reports B Communities must be their own advocates Lawsuits community mobilization C Long waiting list for remediation NPL XVI Fossil Fuels XVII Energy Shoratge XVIII Rainforests XIX Deforestation the conversion of forested areas to non forest land for use such as arable land pasture urban use logged area or wasteland Forests cover 30 of the earth s land Agriculture is the leading cause of deforestation Deforestation is responsible for 12 17 of the annual increase in greenhouse gas emissions XX Environmental Movement XXI Environmental Injustice Minorities and the poor being the ones who suffer most from the effects of pollution Eco sabotage actions taken to sabotage the efforts of people who are thought to be legally harming the environment Environmental Sociology a specialty within sociology that studies how humans affect the environment and how the environment affects humans Eco Sabotage Heroes or Criminals http www cbsnews com news burning rage

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