Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1 out of 3 pages.

View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 3 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 14: Social Psychology- Social psychology – refers to scientific study of how people organize and interpret information about others- Forming impressionso 1st impression is based on clothes, gestures, manner of speaking, body build. Each factoris associated with a schema. Facial hair and t-shirt = liberal. Suit and tie = conservativeo Primary effect – better memory for initial experienceso Schemata are efficient but often inaccurate; cognitive misers.o Danger of first impressions Become self-fulfilling prophesies  Pygmalion effect – expectations of teachers has a strong effect on students’ performance.  Stereotype – a person schema based on distinguishing personal attributes (age, sex, race)o Attributions Attribution theory – what determines whether we attribute behaviors of others to internal vs. external causes. Based on three factors:- Distinctiveness: more distinctive = more external- Consistent: more consistent = more internal- Consensus: more in line with others = more external Actor-observer bias – tendency to attribute others behavior to internal causes while attributing one’s own behavior to external causes. Called ‘fundamental attribution error’ Defensive attribution – people’s desire to present themselves in a favorable light. Just-world hypothesis – belief that people get what they deserveo Interpersonal attraction 3 main factors underlying attraction- Proximity- Similarityo No truth to ‘opposites attract’- Physical attractivenesso The more ‘average’ you are, the more attractive you are.o Attractive people seen as happier, more intelligent and kindero Attitudes – stable set of feelings, thoughts and behaviors towards someone or something Three components- Evaluative beliefs about object- Feeling toward object- Behavior tendencies toward object Attitude development- Parents – reward/punishment, imitation- Teachers, peers- Mass media Prejudice, discrimination, racism- Prejudice – unfair, intolerant view of a group of people- Discrimination – unfair acts towards a group of people- Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 helped to reduce discrimination, it still exists. - Sources of prejudiceo Frustration – aggression theory – when people feel exploited they will direct their anger at groups lower on the social scale.  Scapegoatso Authoritarian personality – rigidly conventional, law and order mentality, respectful and submissive to authorityo Racism – view that certain racial or ethnic groups are innately inferior Changing attitudes – process of persuasion- Communication model – the source of the messageo More credible sources are more persuasiveo Sleeper effect – after time we forget the source and only remember the messageo Messages which contradict our point of view will be discardedo Effective messages present both sides of an argumento Written medium best for complex arguments Key is to know audienceo How can you shield yourself from persuasion? Low self esteem more persuadable  High intelligence less persuadable Be aware when you are the object of persuasion  Cognitive dissonance – holding two contradictory beliefs at the same timeo Social influence – study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the presence of others Cultural influences – behavior based on those around us, leading to cultural truisms- Norms = culturally shared expectations of how to behave- Different does not mean wrong- Conformity – when a person’s own preferences yield to the norms of a larger groupo Collectivist cultures stress social harmony and have high conformity rates Compliance – change in behavior in response to explicit request- Foot in the door effect – asking for a small initial commitment makes people more likely to later comply with a larger commitment - Lowball procedure – seal the deal with deceptively attractive offer and add additional costs when you agree- Door in the face effect – asking for unreasonably large commitments, when turned down people will be more willing to accept a small offer Obedience – compliance with a direct command from an authority. Stanley Milgram did groundbreaking research on this- What leads to decreased obedience?o Authority not in uniformo Authority not in the roomo When teacher and victim in the same roomo When one teacher rebels against the commando Social action Deindividuation – loss of personal sense of responsibility when in a large group Helping behavior – ‘ill scratch your back you scratch mine’ Altruism – presence of others makes us less altruistic (bystander effect)- Factors that increase altruismo Distress in unambiguouso Increased sense of empathyo Being in a good mood Ostracism – being rejected and ignored by others. Leads to low self esteem and depression. Activates the region of the brain which signals physical pain.o Groups and decision making Individuals make better decisions than a group Social loafing – people work less in groups Group cohesion – group may be too

View Full Document
Download Chapter 14: Social Psychology
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Chapter 14: Social Psychology and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Chapter 14: Social Psychology 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?