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UT PSY 1010 - Chapter 12: Psychological disorders

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Chapter 12: Psychological disorders- Called ‘abnormal psychology’- When is a person’s behavior abnormal vs. odd or weird?o Societal perspective – behavior that does not fit in with what is socially acceptedo Individual perspective – behavior that fosters personal sense of unhappinesso Mental health professional perspective – behavior which keeps a person from functioning wello There is no exact distinguishing factor, often it is a quantitative difference- Prevalence – frequency with which a given disorder occurs at a given timeo In US mental health issues are 15% prevalento Most common disorders are anxiety, phobias, and mood disorders- Incidence – how many new cases are in a given time- Historical viewso Until 1800’s people with mental disorders were viewed as witches, or possessed by demons Treatment was cruelo In 1790’s Philippe Pinel instituted first humane treatment with asylums- Contemporary viewso Biological model – physiological malfunctions of brain or endocrine system lead to mental illnesso Psychoanalytic model – mental illness as symbolic expression of childhood conflicto Cognitive model – behavioral modelo Diathesis – Stress model – mental illness arises from biological predispositions and stressful circumstances- Classifying psychological disorderso Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders is the main tool for classifying disorderso Mood disorders – peoples emotional experiences are very restricted Depression – most common. Clinical depression is longer lasting and more severe. Symptoms are self blame, sleep disturbance, loss of interest. 2-3 times more prevalent in females Mania/bipolar- Mania – euphoric, talkative, unrealistic thoughts- Bipolar – depression and mania alternate back and forth Causes – genetic, biochemical, environmental, developmentalo Anxiety disorders – people feel anxious for no reason Specific phobia – paralyzing fear of something. Fear is unreasonable and excessive - Social, agora, etco Panic disorders - recurring episodes of sudden, unpredictable and overwhelming terroro Generalized anxiety disorder – prolonged, vague fears, closest to ‘neurotic’. Inability to relax OCD – involuntary, repetitive, ritualistic behavioro Causes – evolutionary basis, genetics, psychological distress- Psychosomatic and somatoform disorders – physical ailments caused by psychological stresso Tension headacheso Conversion disorder – when psychological distress is converted to physical symptoms o Hypochondriasis – when minor symptoms are interpreted as signs of a serious diseaseo Causes – traumatic past experiences, symptomatic behavior is rewarded, sometimes there are real health issues- Dissociative disorders – when a part of a person’s personality is separatedo Dissociative amnesia – memory loss for certain eventso Dissociative fugue - complete, temporary change in identity o Dissociative identity disorder – several distinct personalities emerge at different timeso Depersonalization disorder – most common, feeling that you have changed, left your body, actions are dream like or mechanical.- Sexual and gender identity disorderso Sexual dysfunction Males –ED Females – arousal disorder Sexual desire disorder – lake of interest Orgasmic disorders- Premature ejaculation- Vaginismus – muscle spasm which makes sex impossibleo Paraphilia’s – unusual situations used to obtain sexual arousal Fetishes – repeated use of nonhuman objects for sexual activity.  Voyeurism – watching others have sex Exhibitionism – exposing yourself to others Frotterism – touching/rubbing others in public  Transvestic Fetishism – wearing clothes of opposite sex Sexual sadism – inflicting pain or humiliation on your partner Sexual masochism – receiving pain from your partner Pedophilia – sexual attraction to children under age 13o Gender identity disorders – desire to become the opposite sex- Personality disorders – disordered personality ranging from eccentrics to murderso Schizoid personality disorder – odd, eccentric behavior. Socially awkwardo Paranoid personality disorder – suspicious, mistrustful, secretive o Dependent personality disorder – inability to make your own decisions, fear of rejectiono Avoidant personality disorder – fearful of rejection, timid, isolated, want social contact.o Narcissistic personality disorder – sense of self importance, need for constant attentiono Borderline personality disorder – impulsive and self destructive, manipulative, trouble with personal boundarieso Antisocial personality disorder – charming on the surface, but constantly lying, stealing, prone to violence and crime- Schizophrenic disorders – does not mean split personality. Thoughts are disorderso Those with schizophrenia are psychotic Psychotic does not equal insanity.o Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations such as hearing voices or delusionso Disorganized schizophrenia – active but aimless, giggling, grimacing, frantic gesturingo Catatonic schizophrenia – severely disturbed motor activity. Mute, immobileo Paranoid schizophrenia – extreme suspiciousness, complex delusions, angry reactionso Undifferentiated schizophrenia – delusions, hallucinations, incoherence in absence of paranoia o Causes – genetic predisposition, faulty regulation of neurotransmitters, diathesis/stress model- Childhood disorderso ADHD Present in 3-5% of the population More prevalent in boys than girls Treated with psychostimulantso Autistic disorder – failure to form strong attachments to parent. Delays in speech and disturbed motor behavior. Autism falls on a spectrum from severe to mild (Asperger’s) Cannot understand emotions- Gender and cultural differences o Women more likely to seek help then meno Strong genetic basis occurs in both men and womeno With environmental components, there a difference between the sexes  Men have more substance abuse and antisocial disorder Men who are single have a higher rate of mental disorder, women who are married have a higher rate of mental disordero Atagne de nervious – seen in Latinos, feeling out of control, fainting, tremblingo Taijin Kyofusho – Japanese, morbid fear of being offensive to otherso Latah – South East Asia, socially created enhancement of startle

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