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Ch 8 : Motivation and EmotionsEnd of Ch 7:- Functional fixedness – tendency to see objects as having only one function- Decision making – special form of problem solving in which you already know all possible solutionso Compensatory model – attractive features of a choice can compensate for unattractive oneso Heuristics – short cuts used in decision makingo Representative heuristics - making decisions based on how similar or representative a choice iso Availability heuristics – making decisions based on whatever information is most available o Confirmation bias – tendency to remember evidence that supports our beliefs and forget evidence which does noto Framing – effects of perspective from which a problem is viewedo Hindsight bias – viewing outcomes as inevitable, believing that one knew it would turn out that wayo Counterfactual thinking – thinking thoughts that are counter to facts- Intelligence and mental abilitieso Intelligence – ability to reason, think, and solve problems Triachic theory – analytical, creative, practical thinking  Multiple intelligences – many types of intelligences (musical, linguistic, logical, ETC) IQ tests measure intelligence (average IQ is 100)- Reliability – extent to which giving a test will give the same results twice- Validity – the extent to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to Heredity, environment, intelligence- Use of twin studies shows gene involvement in intelligence Gender, culture, intelligence- Weak trends show males better at math and spatial abilities, females better at verbal abilities- Males are more likely to be mentally challenged or giftedCH 8- Motivation – something that causes motiono Intrinsic motivation – motivation is provided by activity itselfo Extrinsic motivation – motivation comes from consequences of activity- Emotion – to excite, to move outwardso What is stimulus (cognition)o Is stimulus good or bad ( emotions)o If good, approach, if bad, withdraw ( motivation)- Instincts – very few human behaviors are instinctual- Drive-reduction theory – bodily needs create a drive o Primary drives – food, water, sex, sleep Hypothalamus plays a role in turning hunger drive on and off Leptin – high level of this hormone signals to reduce appetite Ghrelin – high levels of this hormone signals to increase appetite Eating disorders- Anorexia nervosa o Intense fear of becoming obeseo Missed periods in femaleso Refusal to maintain normal body weighto Disturbance of body image- Bulimia nervosao Recurrent episodes of binge eatingo Recurring behaviors to prevent weight gaino Body image distortiono Highest mortality rate of all psychological disorders; 10% of all diagnosed will die- Causes of eating disorderso Mediao Low self esteemo Genetic link, handedness- Obesityo BMI higher than 30o Set point theory – our bodies are genetically set to maintain a certain weight Sex- Primary drive to reproduce- Biological factorso Testosterone – male sex hormoneo Pheromones – secreted to promote sexual readiness in partners- Sex response cycleo Excitemento Plateau o Orgasm- Patternso Frequency depends on age, nationalityo Cultural factors determine what is sexyo Most Americans do not engage in ‘kinky’ sexo Married people have more sexo ¾ of married people will remain faithful to spouse- Sexual orientationo Heterosexualo Homosexualo Bisexualo 3% of males, 2% of females are homosexualo Secondary drives – money, grades, careero Homeostasis – balanced state where drives have been met Arousal theory – people are driven to maintain optimal levels of arousal Sensation seeking – people whose arousal level is too high or too low will seek opposite sensations to level out arousal- Hierarchy of needs – needs range from low level physiological (breathing) to high level psychological- Aggression – behavior intended to inflict harm on otherso Largely a learned responseo Response to pain and frustrationo Some cultures promote aggression while others promote peaceo Males are more prone to violence due to social conditioning- Achievement – desire to excel- Affiliation – desire to be a part of a sympathetic group- Emotionso 8 basic emotions are universal Fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation, joy, acceptanceo Theories James – Lange theory – fearful stimulus leads to a physiological change Cannon – Bard – fearful stimulus leads to physiological and psychological behaviors Cognitive theory – stimulus leads to physiological and psychological appraisal of emotion o Communicating emotions Voice- Anger – low pitch- Disgust – downward pitch, fast- Fear – high pitch, low intensity- Sadness – high pitch Face- We have little conscious control over our face muscleso A true smile include the eyes as well as the mouth  Body language – personal space and gestures Gender and emotion - Men are more likely to inhibit their emotions while women will express and direct their emotions inward.- Women are better at interpreting verbal cues- Cultures differ in display

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