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BMGT360 Final Chapters 9-14CHAPTER 9: MANAGING CAREERSINDIVIDUAL VS. ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:- Organizational Viewpoint: career development involves tracking career paths and developing career ladders. o HRM seeks to direct information and monitor the progress of special groups of employees.- Individual Career Development: focuses on assisting individuals to identify their major goals and how to achieve them.CAREER DEVELOPMENT VS. EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT:- Career Development: looks at the long-term career effectiveness and success of organizational personnel. - Employee Development: should be compatible with an individual’s career development in the organization. o Match individual abilities and aspirations with the needs of the organizationCAREER DEVELOPMENT: VALUE FOR THE ORGANIZATION:- A well designed career development program should lead to:o Need talent will be available o The organization’s ability to attract and retain talented employees improveso Minorities and women have comparable opportunities for growth and developmento Reduced employee frustrationo Enhanced cultural diversityo Organizational goodwillCAREER DEVELOPMENT: VALUE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL - Careers are both external and internalo External Career: involves properties or qualities of an occupation or an organization.  E.g; the sequence of jobs or positions: undergraduate degree, sales rep., graduate training, district manager, president of small firm, retirement. o Internal Career: career success can be defined by internal personal. Subjective value judgments as well as objective, external elements such as titles and income. MENTORING AND COACHING:1- Mentoring/Coaching: When a senior employee takes an active role in guiding another individual. o Effective Coach: gives guidance through direction, advice, criticism and suggestions in an attempt to aid the employees’ growth.  Mentors provide a support system for junior employees by offering insight into how the organization operates, helping expand the junior employee’s professional network, assisting in setting career development goals and providing feedback. o Disadvantages: tendencies to perpetuate the current styles and practices in the organization and heavy reliance on the coach’s ability to be a good teacher. TRADITIONAL CAREER STAGES:- Exploration: transition from school to work, usually occurs in mid –twenties. o This stage has the least relevance to organizations because it occurs prior to employment. o During the exploration period we develop many expectations about our career, many tend to be unrealistic. - Establishment: search for work, getting first job and getting established.o Gaining the first tangible evidence of success or failure in the real work. - Mid-career: a career stage marked by continuous improvement in performance, leveling off in performance or beginning of deterioration in performance. - Late Career: a career stage in which individuals are no longer learning about their jobs nor expected to outdo levels of performance from previous years.o Their value to the organization typically lies heavily in their judgment, built up over many years and through varied experiences. o They often teach others based on the knowledge they have gained. - Decline: transition to retirementCAREER CHOICES AND PREFERENCES:- Holland Vocational Preferences: represents and individual occupational personality as it relates to vocational themes. o This theory consists of three major components:1. People have varying occupational preferences2. If you do a job you think is important, you will be a more productiveemployee3. You will have more in common with people who have similar interest patterns and less in common with those who don’t.o The Holland Vocational Model identifies six vocational themes: realistic, investigation, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional.- The Schein Anchors: Edgar Schein has identified anchors, or personal value clusters, that may be satisfied or frustrated by work. o When the worker holds a particular combination of these personal value clusters- technical functional, creativity, and autonomy- independence- and 2the organization characteristically offers them, that person is “ anchored” in that job, organization, or industry. o If an organization satisfies two out of three value clusters, it is considered a stable match. - Myers- Briggs Typologies: uses four dimensions of personality to identify 16 different personality types based on responses to an approximately 100-item questionnaire. o 4 Dimensions: Thinking vs. Feeling (TF) Judging vs. Perceiving (JP) Extroversion versus introversion (EI) Sensing versus intuitive (SN)CHAPTER 10: ESTABLISHING THE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMPERFORAMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS- The performance appraisal is the most easily identifiable, but its just a part of a system that seeks to motivate employees to maximum performance by evaluating the employee’s effort on the job, comparing it to standards, and using those results to help employees improve. PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:- Performance appraisal: performance appraisals take the part of the evaluation instrument that conveys to employees how well they have progressed toward achieving their goals.o Goals and performance measures are mutually set between the employee and supervisor. o Provides documentation: a record of performance appraisal process outcomes.- Employee Development: areas in which an employee has a deficiency or weakness,or an area that simply could be improved through an effort to enhance performance.- Difficulties in Performance Management Systems: o Focus on the Individual: whenever performance evaluations are administered, there is the issue of people not seeing eye-to-eye on the evolution. Emotions can come into play when there is disagreement making the situation uncomfortable. o Focus on the Process: whenever performance evolutions are conducted, a particular structure must be followed. The structure exists to facilitate documentation that often allows for quantifiable evaluation. Company policies and procedures may present barriers to a properly functioning appraisal process. 3THE APPRAISAL PROCESS:- Establish Performance Standards: 1. Establish performance standards with employees: Should evolve out of the company’s strategic direction and the job analysis and the job description.  Performance standards should also be clear and objective enough to be

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