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Nationalists/Localists-Nationalists: strong, central government with the power in the hands of the rich and few; power of regular people filtered through elites; government should play a big part in the economy (Alexander Hamilton, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Abe Lincoln, Republicans)-Localists: state power; individuals; small scale government; no elite privilege; government shouldn’t intervene in economy (TJ, Andrew Jackson, Democrats)- Significance: both groups were significant because they helped balance the power. Without the localists, the federal government would be too powerful and without the views of the nationalist, the federal government would be too weak Alexander Hamilton- leader of the Federalist party: favored a strong national government - established the first National Bank - first secretary of the Treasury-believed in tariffs and subsidies to protect manufacturingWhiskey Rebellion (1794)-the federal government wanted to put a tax on whiskey- revolt of settlers against a federal excise tax-demonstrated the willingness of federal officials to use the enormous power -***contrasts with Shay’s RebellionAlien and Sedition Acts-four laws**-took away civil liberties of the people and violated the first amendment: freedom ofspeech and press--criticism of government is illegal-Naturalization Act: required residence from 4 to 12 years before an alien could become a citizen-Alien Friends Act: allowed the president to deport any alien that was dangerous -Alien Enemies Act: allowed the deportation of any alien from a country at war with the United States-Sedition Act: its a crime to talk shit about the president -Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions passed in protestMarbury v. Madison (1803)- ::Marbury was a midnight judge and Madison tried to fill spots with as many federalists.- ::Marbury doesn’t get his job but he affirms the judicial system of their power to judicial review Tecumseh- :Him and his brother, a prophet, attempted to have a pan-Indian movement (one of the last attempts of Indians) to fight off the white men- ::Somewhat successful- ::During the War of 1812- last point of serious unified resistance from Native Americans that had a chance of successChesapeake-Leopard Affair- libero said this wouldnt be on it- events leading up to the war of 1812- British Ship stopped American ship in american watershelped lead to embargo act- Hartford Convention-federalists got together and created a list of changes to the constitution that would favor themover the Democratic-Republicans- met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and political problems arising from the federal government’s increasing power-Concepts discussed- ⅗ compromise: they discussed was removing the ⅗ compromise (gave slave statesmore power in Congress and required a two-thirds supermajority in congress for the admission of new states, declaration of war, and laws restricting tradeMissouri Compromise-allowed Missouri to be admitted as the 24th-Missouri: entered as a slave state-Maine: entered as a free state-made to maintain the balance of free vs. slave states-no slavery in Louisiana territory north of 36/30 line-unconstitutionalJohn C. Calhoun-the first Vice President to resign from office-resigned to join senate -an advocate of slavery, states rights, a limited federal government, and nullification-supported tariffsWorcester v. Georgia- Went to the supreme court to see what the relationship with Native Americans was- :The rule of law doesn’t always apply when it comes to Native Americans- :They will do anything for their landTransportation Revolution- New ways of tying communities together.- 1860 = resume work on the national road- Canal Boom- State government dug up rivers where there isn’t one.- Not only connecting communities, but also it was connecting markets.- Development of steamship.- Growth of Railroads- Benefits farmers: faster, cheaperPastoralization of housework· :::::Changing Definitions of Work· :::::Emergence of separate spheres ideology· :::::Cult of true womanhood also encouraged women’s activist work· :::::Women are to be pure, submissive, and must give everything to her husband from public sphere19th-century class formationlibero said this was too broad, so it wont be on itLowell Mills-young girls from farm families worked in cotton mills (96% native-born white women)-opened in 1823-12 hrs/day, 6 days/wk, but well-paid-speed-ups of mills and declining wages in 1830s caused a strike-1845: Lowell Female Labor Reform AssociationCotton revolution-cotton gin invented in 1793-states with new slaves produced the most cotton-Cotton Belt: Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas; produced majority of American cotton-growth of cotton economy led to Native American removal-grueling and long growing season-hard on slavesYeoman farmers-Independent farmers in the south -worked the land with their families-Plantation owners bought food from yeoman farmers for their slaves, but yeoman farmers didn't rely on slave labor on their own farms-slavery put large planters in a higher class than yeomansSecond Middle Passage-internal within America-regarding cotton economyDr. Samuel Cartwright-Libero: “not sure why he even made it on here”Second Great Awakening-period of religious revivals at occurred in the United States in the 1830s-many more Americans became practising Christians-Reformers began advocating many social and political changes-movements to prohibit alcoholic beverages, to increase public education, to support rights forwomen, to outlaw war-significance: reform movements helped people outside the south to reject slaveryTranscendentalism- an idealistic philosophical and social movement in reaction to rationalism; influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy- it taught that divinity prevades all nature and humanity and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living- in order to understand the nature of reality, one must first examine and analyze the reasoning processthat governs the nature of experience Oneida- an example of the utopian movements a response in some of the chaos in the 19th century part of a broader movement- ::::::Commune where they have complex marriage- ::::::Another response to the pressure of Industrial Revolution- ::::::There were quite a few other communities of that gender sortFrederick Douglass- African-American social reformer, orator, and statesman- escaped slavery; became a leader of the

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UMD HIST 200 - Nationalists/Localists

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