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UMD HIST 200 - Final Exam Study Guide

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HIST 200: Interpreting American History: Beginnings to 1877 Spring 2014 Dr. Larocco Final Exam Study Guide Nationalists/Localists – NATIONALISTS:- Believed in a strong central government. - Loose constitutionalists (Meaning, that they read between the lines – if it’s not explicitly stated, then they didn’t think certain things were unconstitutional)- Power of the people filtered through elites- Belief that the federal government should put money into the nation’s economy - Formally known as federalists, national republicans, and whigs EXAMPLES OF NATIONALISTS: Abraham Lincoln, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and Henry ClayLOCALISTS: - Believed that states should be the main unit of power.- Strict constitutionalists (Took the constitution word by word)- Importance of land and the belief that there shouldn’t be “elite privilege”- Government shouldn’t intervene with the economy - Strong emphasis on the 10th amendment. (Power reserved to states + people) EXAMPLES OF LOCALISTS: Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson Nationalists and localists were significant because they helped balance the power. Without localists, the federal government would be too powerful and without nationalists, the federal government would be too weak and not have the power to tax people in order to fund necessary means such as the national defense (army). Alexander Hamilton – George Washington’s treasury secretary. Hamilton was a significant to American history because he established a national bank, which was high controversial but passed. He established permanent national debt and that plays a huge role with the United States’financial system until this day.Whiskey Rebellion – Farmers in western Pennsylvania found tax on whiskey distilling unfair so they rebelled. George Washington organized the federal army. This was significant because it marked the first time under the United States constitution that the US had used military force onAmerican citizens. This was very unlike Shay’s rebellion but it correlates due to the fact that after Shay’s rebellion, the government wanted to make sure that they could afford an army + defense for the nation. Thus, this could be used as an example to show the effect that Shay’s rebellion had on shaping the government. Alien and Sedition Acts – (1798) - Gave the president power to deport threatening foreigners.- There was also restricted naturalization - Criticism of government was made illegal- 10 people were jailed for criticizing the governmentThe significance of the Alien and Sedition Acts was that they led to the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions which were written by Jefferson and Madison declaring the acts unconstitutional. They also contributed to the federalists’ loss in the election of 1800. In other words, it backfired big time. Marbury v. Madison – - Federalist Marbury appointed – “midnight judge” - Secretary of State James Madison refuses to deliver commission- So, Marbury asks the Supreme Court for “writ of mandamus” This was significant because it dealt with appointing high-ranking officials. (Completion within presidents’ term.)Tecumseh –- A Shawnee chief who preached rejection of white culture, Indian unity, and Indian resistance.- This was significant because in 1810, he formed a confederation in strong attempts to unify both northern and southern Indians. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair – - British Leopard pursued US Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia. The British opened fire when Americans refused to allow them to search the Chesapeake for British naval deserters. - This was significant because it was one of the important events that led up to the war of 1812. Hartford Convention –- Secession is discussed but they settle on demanding amendments that counteract growing democratic-republican influence. - This was significant because it marked the end of the Federalist Party. Missouri Compromise – - Americans moving west laterally- Missouri applied for statehood as slave state in 1819- Threatened balance of power in Congress- Senator Henry Clay (KY)?proposed compromise: MO: slave state ME: free state- No slavery in LA territory north of 36/30?line- Since Southern states were in favor of slavery, and Northern states opposed the idea, an expansion of slavery would have meant an increase in the territorial space and population. This in turn would have given the Southern states increased power in the House. Thus when MO applied as a slave state and ME applied as a free state, it balanced the power in the housesince it’s balanced in the number of free and slave states in the country. John C. Calhoun – - Was VP for Andrew Jackson- He was significant because he was the first vice president to resign from office. He resigned to join the senate (SC)- He was known as an advocate of slavery, states’ rights, limited federal government, and nullification (nullification is the belief that the states should have the right to deem a federal law unconstitutional)- He was also a major figure in pushing the South and the North apart by being a major inspiration to secessionists who caused the civil warWorcester v. Georgia – - Georgia law required all whites living in Cherokee Indian Territory to obtain a state license. Seven missionaries refused to obey the state law and were arrested, convicted, and sentenced to four years of hard labor for violating the state licensing law. They also refused to obey the military when they were asked to leave the state. They appealed their case to the Supreme Court of the United States, arguing that the laws they had been convicted under were unconstitutional because states have no power or authority to pass laws concerning sovereignIndian Nations. - The missionaries Samuel Austin Worcester and Elizur Butler were targeted by Georgia because of their influence with and support of Cherokee resistance against removal. It was understood that if they had applied for state licenses to reside among the Cherokees, thelicenses would have been denied. The Georgia state courts had previously been deferential toWorcester because of his federal appointment as postmaster to New Echota, the Cherokee capital. However, the governor of Georgia, George Rockingham Gilmer, personally persuaded the federal government to withdraw Worcester's appointment as postmaster in order to make him subject to arrest. - Chief Justice John Marshall laid out in this opinion the relationship


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