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CHAPTER 14 STUDY GUIDE Emotion Reward Aggression Stress What is the difference between the arousal level of an emotion and the valence of an emotion o arousal level o valence object or event amount of physical response positive attractive or negative aversive reaction to an Which brain pathways brain regions control voluntary and spontaneous facial expressions o voluntary motor cortex input o spontaneous subcortical basil ganglia What is the difference between volitional facial paralysis and emotional facial paralysis o volitional facial paralysis is impaired but spontaneous expression is NOT impaired impaired but voluntary expression is NOT impaired o emotional facial paralysis the ability to express spontaneous is the ability to express voluntary emotion Are emotions mostly learned based on culture or are they universal What evidence supports this o emotions universal people from Western and non Western literate groups tend to agree about the emotions represented by photographs of facial expressions blind infants express emotions at the same time as sighted infants infants protest separation from mothers at the same time across cultures Which brain system is important for emotional processing Which brain regions are most crucial o emotional processing limbic system o crucial brain regions thalamus cortex What types of emotions are experienced when the amygdala is activated Without a healthy amygdala what types of emotions do people not experience o amygdala activation fear anxiety o damage to the amygdala difficulty identifying fear anger expressions urbach weithe disease but the ability to learn a conditioned emotional response is impaired arousal is displayed when startled What brain region is necessary for fear learning to occur In which sub region of this structure does LTP occur to associate fearful stimuli to non noxious contextual stimuli What type of learning is this o fear learning amygdala o long term potentiation LTP associations between shock non noxious stimulus o sub region LA lateral nucleus CE central nucleus the lateral amygdala strengthens auditory thalamus cortex somatosensory thalamus cortex Is the anterior cingulate cortex involved in emotion What is its role and when is it activated o serves as a gateway between the limbic structures PFC o active when we express emotion o damage may be implicated in psychopathy o same regions activated by physical and emotional pain o right ACC is larger in people who score high in harm avoidance Which hemisphere of the brain is emotion lateralized to o emotional lateralization cerebral cortex left hemisphere damage depression right hemisphere damage surprisingly cheerful What is stress Is it always bad o stress extrinsic or intrinsic adverse forces state of threatened homeostasis following exposure to unpleasant and disruptive state resulting from the perception of danger or threat condition in the environment that makes unusual demands on the organism such as threat failure or bereavement sources of stress which can be physical or psychological o stressors o acute stress may be beneficial increases immune system activity increases number of immune responsive cells What are the two main bodily systems that control the stress response Which two main classes of hormones are released in response to activating the two stress systems 1 Sympathetic Nervous System a norepinephrine non adrenaline b epinephrine adrenaline i ii increase output from the heart liberate glucose from muscles for addtl energy 2 Hypothalamic Pituitary Axis a cortisol i ii increases energy by converting proteins to glucose increasing fat availability and increasing metabolism long term energy increase for sustained stress What is the role of the sympathetic nervous system SNS in the stress response What changes in the body result from SNS activation Which endocrine gland releases stress hormones o Sympathetic Nervous System SNS stressors lead to SNS activation adrenal medulla releases 2 catecholamines 1 adrenaline 2 nonadrenaline increases in heart rate blood flow and respiration rate help the person deal with the stressful situation What are the main hormones in the HPA axis o corticotrophin releasing hormone CRH affects the anterior pituitary which releases o adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH in response to ACTH the adrenal glands release o cortisol influences many neurons in the brain increasing the release of several neurotransmitters How does negative feedback on the HPA axis work Which hormone is responsible Which brain regions does it act in o Negative Feedback hippocampus contains receptors for glucocorticoids such as cortisol GRs when the hippocampus binds cortisol it acts to inhibit CRH release by the hypothalamus with less CRH less ACTH cortisol will be released amygdala stimulates CRH release in the PVN What is the difference between acute and chronic stress o acute stress o chronic stress the most common form of stress that comes from the demands pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands pressures of the near future prolonged period over which an individual perceives he or she has no control endocrine system response releases corticosteroids the response to emotional pressure suffered for a Social stressors difficult job city living etc are usually which type How does chronic stress alter the hippocampus What problems do these changes in the hippocampus lead to o cortisol increases the amount of calcium entering neurons too much o acute stress can be toxic o neurons in the hippocampus are particularly vulnerable to stress impacting negative feedback of stress response What does diathesis stress refer to In relation to psychological and brain health what are some examples of diathesis o it is an attempt to explain behavior as a predispositional vulnerability together with stress from life experiences Are there critical periods for HPA axis development depression suicide o prenatal o neonatal o adult What is the ACE study o adverse childhood experiences study ACE studies analyzing the relationship between childhood trauma and the risk for physical and mental illness in adulthood one of the largest Does the ACE study measure the gene diathesis or environment stress component of psychiatric disorder risk o it measures the environmental components of disorder risk CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE Psychological Disorders What are the criteria for diagnosis with major depressive disorder o depressed mood for at least 2 weeks o loss of pleasure in

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OSU PSYCH 3313 - Study Guide

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