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Chapter 6 Study Guide- Encoding, storage, retrieval, and decayo Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval are the three phases of memoryo Encoding- the first step in memory; the process by which information gets into memory storage. o Storage- the retention of information over time and how this information is represented in memoryo Retrieval- the memory process that occurs when information that was retained in memory comes out of storageo Decay- the idea that when we learn something new, a neurological trace forms, but over time the trace disintegrates. A more in-depth look into these phases will occur throughout the guide.- Sustained vs Divided Attentiono Sustained- vigilance; the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time. An example would be playing close attention to your notes while studying for an exam. o Divided- Concentrating on more than one activity at a time.An example would be listening to music or the television while reading or studying. Divided attention can be especially detrimental to encoding. Multitasking- in some cases involves dividing attention between three or more activities, is considered the ultimate in divided attention. Studies have shown that many times multitaskers are more confident in their abilities than they should be. - Levels of Processing- A continuum of memory processing fromshallow to intermediate to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory. Shallow Physical and perceptual features are analyzedThe lines, angles, and contour that make up the physical appearance of an object, such as acar, are detected.IntermediateStimulus is recognized and labeledThe object is recognized as a carDeep Semantic, meaningful, symbolic Association connected with ‘car’ are brought to mind- you think about the Porsche or Ferrari you hope to buy orcharacteristics areusedthe fun you and your friends had on Spring Break when you drove a car on the beach- Elaboration- the formation of a number of different connections around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding. Elaboration is like creating a huge web of links between new information, and something you already know. Itcan occur at any level of processing. More elaborate processing typically results in better memory. o Self-reference is another effective way to elaborate oninformation. It involves relating material to your own experience. - Dual-Code Hypothesis- claims that memory for pictures is better than memory for words. This is because pictures are stored as both image codes and verbal codes. Therefore, using imagery to remember has two potential avenues we canuse to retrieve the information. - Atkinson- Shriffin theory- theory stating that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory- Sensory memory- memory system that involves holding information from the world in its original sensory form for onlyan instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory and other senses. Sensory memory is present in everything that we commit to memory; however unless we transfer it to short-term or long-term memory before we forget it, then it is lost. - Short- term memory- limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless strategies are used to retain it longer. - Long-term memory- a relatively permanent type of memorythat stores huge amounts of information for a long time. - Working memory- a combination of components, including short-term memory and attention, that allow individuals to hold information as they preform - Echoic vs Iconic memory- o Echoic- refers to auditory sensory memory, which is retained for up to several seconds. A trace of audio remains in your mind even after it ends.o Iconic- refers to visual sensory memory, which is retained for only about ¼ of a second. Responsible for our ability to ‘write’ in the air with sparklers and use theresidual iconic memory. - Chunking- involves grouping or ‘packing’ information that exceeds the usual 7 plus or minus 2 memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units. Chunking works by making large amounts of information more manageable- Rehearsal- the conscious repetition of information- Declarative vs. Non-Declarative Memoryo Declarative- also known as explicit memory; the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least in humans, information thatcan be verbally communicated. Has to do with remembering who, what, where, when, and whyo Non-Declarative- also known as implicit memory; memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience. Has to do with remembering how- Episodic memory- the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life’s happenings- that is, how individuals remember life’s episodes. Autobiographical. Includes details of where you were born, what you ate for breakfast. - Semantic memory- a person’s knowledge about the world. Includes one’s areas of expertise, general knowledge learned in school, and every day knowledge about the meanings of words, famous individuals, important places, and common things.- H.M., the patient with severe epilepsy- underwent surgery in 1953, when he was 27, that involved removing the hippocampus, and a portion of the temporal lobes of both hemispheres in his brain. His epilepsy improved but he lost the ability to form new memories. He lived in a perpetual present for the rest of his life- Cerebellum and memory- the cerebellum is active in the implicit memory required to preform skills- Limbic system and memory- the limbic system plays a rolein explicit memory. The amygdala, which is part of the limbicsystem, is involved in emotional memories. - Cerebral cortex and memory- plays a role in explicit memory. The hippocampus and frontal lobes are involved in both retrospective and prospective memory- Priming- the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster. Occurs when something in the environment evokes a response in memory-such as the activation of a particular concept.- Schema- a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information. Schemas from prior encounters with the environment influence the wayindividuals encode, make inferences about, and retrieve

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GSU PSYC 1101 - Chapter 6 Study Guide

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