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Chapter 5 Study Guide- Learning- defined as a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience- Behaviorism - a theory of learning that focuses on observable behaviors. This theory discounts the importance of mental activity like thinking, wishingand hoping.- Associative and Observational Learning - o Associative- occurs when we make a connection, or an association, between two events.  The process of learning this associations is known as ‘conditioning’, which can be either classical or operanto Observational- learning that occurs through observing and imitating another’s behavior. Observational learning is extremely important to human beings and, unlike associative learning, it relies on mental processes- Four processes of observational learning o Attention- in order to reproduce an action, you must first attend to what the model is saying or doing. o Retention- to reproduce a model’s actions, you must encode the information and keep it in memory so that you can retrieve ito Motor reproduction- the process of imitating the model’s actionso Reinforcement- is the model’s behavior followed by a consequence?- Classical vs. Operant conditioning o Classical- learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an innately meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. Organisms learn the relationship between two stimuli. Associated with unlearned, involuntary responseso Operant- a form of associative learning in which the consequences of abehavior change the probability of a behavior’s occurrence. An example is studying for a test because you know that if you do so, you are more likely to receive a good grade. Associated with learned, voluntary responses.- Reflexes- certain, innate responses that some stimuli automatically produce. An example is shivering in response to low temperature, coughing in response to throat congestion, etc.- Stimuli o Unconditioned- stimulus that produces a response without prior learning. Ex: foodo Conditioned- previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus- Response o Unconditioned- an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited bythe unconditional stimuluso Conditioned- learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioning stimulus- unconditioned stimulus pairing- Contingency vs contiguity - instrumental in classical conditioningo Contingency- the conditioned stimulus most precede the unconditioned stimulus closely in time and serve as a reliable indicator that the unconditioned stimulus is on its way. o Contiguity- means that the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are presented very close together in time- Generalization o CC- the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned responseo OC- Preforming a reinforced behavior in a different situation- Discrimination o CC- the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not otherso OC- responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforces- Extinction o CC- the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absento OC- decreases in the frequency of a behavior when the behavior is no longer reinforced- Spontaneous Recovery- process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning- Acquisition - the first part of classical conditioning. It is the initial learning of the connection between the un-conditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired.- Counter Conditioning - a classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response.- Little Albert - A study was conditioned in which a baby, named Albert was used to demonstrate classical conditioning’s role in the development of fears.Albert was shown a white rat to see whether he was afraid of it. He was not, which made the rat a neutral stimulus. While Albert played with the rat the researchers sounded a loud noise behind his head (the noise being the unconditioned stimulus), which caused him to cry (the unconditioned response). After seven pairings of the rat and the loud noise, Albert began to fear the rat even when the noise was not present (conditioned response). Hisfear was further generalized to a rabbit, do and a sealskin coat (stimulus generalization). - Aversive conditioning - a form of treatment that consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus- Immunosuppression- a decrease in the production of anti-bodies, which can lower a person’s ability to fight disease- Habituation - decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations- Thorndikes’ law of effect - states that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened- B.F. Skinner - developed the concept of operant conditioning, known for adopting the behavioral approach (behaviorism), believed that mechanisms of learning are the same for all species- Shaping - rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior. Can beused to train animals to do certain things, like training a rat to press a bar in order to receive food- Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement o Positive- the presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavioro Negative- the removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior- Punishment vs. Reward o Punishment- a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occuro Reward- the return for performance of a desired behavior- Avoidance learning - an organism’s learning that it can altogether avoid a negative stimulus by making a particular response- Learned helplessness- through experience with unavoidable aversive stimuli, an organism learns that it has no control over negative outcome- Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcer o Primary- a reinforcer that is innately satisfying; one that does not takeany learning on the organism’s part to make it pleasurableo Secondary- a reinforcer that acquires its positive value through an organism’s experience;

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GSU PSYC 1101 - Chapter 5 Study Guide

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