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Chapter 13 Study Guide Biological Cognitive Humanistic Client centered behavior integrative group family coupled and psychodynamic therapy o Biological treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning o Cognitive a therapy that combines cognitive therapy and behavior therapy with the goal of developing the client s self efficacy o Humanistic treatments unique in their emphasis on people s self healing capacities that encourage clients to understand themselves and grow personally o Client centered Also called Rogerian therapy or nondirective therapy a form of humanistic therapy developed by Rogers in which the therapist provides a warm supportive atmosphere to improve the client s self concept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems o Behavior treatments based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories that use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior o Integrative use of a combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapist s judgment of which particular methods will provide the greatest benefit for the client o Group a sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional o Family group therapy with family members o Coupled group therapy involving married or unmarried couples who major problem lies within their relationship o Psychodynamic treatments that stress the importance of the unconscious mind extensive interpretation by the therapist and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual s problems Tranquilizers also known as antianxiety drugs reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable Benzodiazepines the antianxiety drugs that generally offer the greatest relief got anxiety symptoms though potentially addictive Antidepressants drugs that help to regulate mood Three main classes o Tricyclic believed to work by increasing the level of certain neurotransmitters especially serotonin and norepinephrine Example Elavil o Monoamine oxidase thought to work by blocking the enzyme monoamine oxidase which breaks down the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain Example Nardil o Serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs target serotonin and work mainly by interfering with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain Example Prozac Paxil paroxetine a widely prescribed SSRI effective in reducing the symptoms of depression with fewer side effects than other antidepressants Prozac fluoxetine a widely prescribed SSRI effective in reducing the symptoms of depression with fewer side effects than other antidepressants the lightest of the solid elements in the periodic table of elements widely used to treat bipolar disorder Antipsychotic drugs powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior reduce tension decrease hallucinations improve social behavior and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a severe psychological disorder especially schizophrenia Neuroleptic drugs the most extensively used class of antipsychotic drugs When taken in sufficient doses neuroleptics reduce schizophrenia symptoms They are able to block dopamine s action in the brain ECT electroconvulsive therapy also called shock therapy a treatment sometimes used for depression that sets off a seizure in the brain Psychosurgery a biological therapy with irreversible effects that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individual s adjustment Psychoanalysis Freud s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual s unconscious thoughts Catharsis the release of emotional tension a person experiences when reliving an emotionally charged and conflicting experience Latent vs Manifest content o Latent the unconscious hidden aspects of a dream that are symbolized by the manifest content o Manifest conscious remembered aspects of a dream Transference a client s relating to the psychoanalyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client s life Resistance unconscious defense strategies on the part of a client that prevent the psychoanalyst from understanding the client s problems Reflective speech a technique in which the therapist mirrors the client s own feelings back to the client Behavior modification also known as applied behavior analysis the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior Systematic desensitization a behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety producing situations Aversive conditioning repeated pairings of an undesirable behavior with aversive stimuli to decrease the behavior s positive associations Through this people can learn to avoid such behaviors as smoking overeating and drinking alcohol Applied behavior analysis involves establishing positive reinforcement connections between behaviors and rewards so that individuals engage in appropriate behavior and extinguish inappropriate behavior Cognitive restructuring a general concept for changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion Central to cognitive therapists Rational emotive behavior theory a therapy based on Ellis s assertion that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of irrational and self defeating beliefs and whose goal is to get clients to eliminate these beliefs by rationally examining them Beck s cognitive theory in the initial stage of Beck s therapy individuals learn to make connections between their patterns of thinking and their emotional responses He believed that by changing cognitions people can change how they feel The first goal of therapy is to bring automatic thoughts into awareness so that they can be changed The therapist helps clients identify their own automatic thoughts and to keep records of their thought content and emotional reactions Self efficacy Albert Bandura s concept that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes Key to successful therapy Self help groups voluntary organizations of individuals who get together on a regular basis to discuss topics of common interest The groups are conducted by a paraprofessional an individual who has been taught by a professional to provide some mental health services but who does not have formal mental health

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GSU PSYC 1101 - Chapter 13 Study Guide

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