Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 11 Study Guide- Person perception- refers to the process by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others. One important socialcue is the face- Stereotype-a generalization about a group’s characteristics thatdoes not consider any variations from one individual to another- Prejudice- an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual’s membership in a group. People who aredifferent in one way from a prejudiced person- Discrimination- an unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group- “Beautiful is Good” stereotype- positive expectations for physically attractive individuals- Self-fulfilling prophecy- in a self-fulfilling prophecy , expectations cause individuals to act in ways that serve to make to make the expectations come true- Internal vs. External attributionso Attribution theory- the view that people are motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior Internal/external- internal: causes inside and specific to the person, such as his or her traits and abilities. External: include causes outside of the person, such as social pressure, aspects of the social situation, and the weather- Fundamental attribution error- observes overestimation of the importance of internal traits and underestimation of the importance of external situations when they seek explanations ofanother person’s behavior- False consensus effect- observer’s overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way they do- Positive illusions- favorable views of the self that are not necessarily rooted in reality- Self-serving biases- the tendency to take credit for one’s own successes and deny responsibility for one’s own failures- Stereotype threat- an individual’s fast-acting, self-fulfilling fearof being judged based on a negative stereotype about his or her group- Social comparison- the process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to others- Cognitive dissonance- an individual’s psychological discomfort(dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts. According to the theory, we feel uneasy when we notice inconsistency between what we believe and what we do- Self-perception theory-Bem’s theory on how behaviors influence attitudes, stating that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perieving their behavior- Elaboration likelihood model- theory identifying two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route. The central route works by engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument. The peripheral route involves non-message factors such as the source’s credibility and attractiveness or emotional appeals- Foot-in-the-door- sale strategy which involves making a smaller request at the beginning and saving the biggest demand for last. - Door-in-the-face- involves making the biggest pitch at the beginning, which the customer will probably reject, and then making a smaller ‘concessionary’ demand. Relies on the fact thatthe customer feels a sense of reciprocity and obligation- Reciprocity- principle that encourages us to do unto others as we would have them do unto us- Altruism- unselfish interest in helping another persono Egoism- giving to another person to ensure reciprocity; to gain self-esteem; to present one-self as powerful, competent, or caring; or to avoid social and self-censure for failing to live up to society’s expectations- Bystander effect- the tendency for an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when the observer is alone- Diffusion of responsibility- effect of deindividuation (the reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group)- Frontal lobes- most involved in executive functions such as planning and self control. Has also been implicated in aggression- Serotonin- lower levels have been associated with aggressive behavior- Testosterone- hormone that is typically associated with aggressive behavior- Observational learning- along with reinforcement plays a role in the learning of aggression- Types of aggressiono Overt aggression- physical or verbal behavior that directly harms another person. Males tend to be higher n this than females. o Relational aggression- behavior that is meant to harm the social standing of another person through activities such asgossiping and spreading rumors. Requires that the aggressor have a considerable level of social and cognitive skill- Asch’s line study- conducted a study on conformity, finding that volunteer participants would conform to the obviously incorrect response 35% of the time when confederates would all agree on the same wrong answer- Informational vs normative social influence-Two main factors attributing to conformityo Informative- the influence other people have on us becausewe want to be righto Normative- the influence other people have on us because we want them to be like us- Milgram’s obedience study- ‘shock’ obedience study in which volunteers had to administer an electric shock to a confederate even when it appeared the confederate was under great distress.Concluded that ordinary people are likely to follow orders givenby an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being- Deindividuation- the reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group- Stanford prison study- a study conducted on obedience wherea stimulated prison was created in the basement of Stanford University. Some volunteers were ‘prisoners’ others were ‘guards’. Many of the guards treated the prisoners horribly knowing they weren’t actual prisoners. Concluded that situational factors powerfully affect human behavior- Social contagion- imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions and ideas. Can be observed in such things associal fads, the popularity of dog breeds, and unhealthy things like drinking among minors and symptoms of eating disorders among young women- Social facilitation- improvement in an individual’s performancebecause of reduced accountability for individual effort. Example: performing better in front of others than by yourself- Social loafing- each person’s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced

View Full Document

GSU PSYC 1101 - Chapter 11 Study Guide

Documents in this Course
Load more
Download Chapter 11 Study Guide
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Chapter 11 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Chapter 11 Study Guide 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?