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Chap ter 12 Study Guide - Abnormal vs maladaptive behavior-o Abnormal- behavior that is deviant, mal-adaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of timeo Maladaptive- behavior that interferes with one’s ability to function effectively in the world- Different approaches to disorderso Biological- attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes. Focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormalityo Psychological- emphasizes the contributions of experiences, thoughts, emotions, and personality characteristics in explaining psychological disorderso Sociocultural- emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family relationships, and cultureo Biopsychosocial- a combination of biologic, psychological, and sociocultural factors- DSM-IV- the ‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’ Forth Edition, the major classification of psychological disorders in the United States- DSM Axes- Axes I and II are concerned with the classification of psychological disorders. Axes III through V may not be needed to diagnose a psychological disorder. Axis III helps to clarify whether symptoms may be rooted in physical illness. On Axis V, the clinician evaluates the highest level of adaptive functioning the person has attained in the preceding year in social, occupational, or school activitieso Axis I: All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardationo Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardationo Axis III: General medical conditionso Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental problemso Axis V: Current level of functioning- Anxiety disorder- disabling (uncontrollable and disruptive) psychological disorders that feature motor tension, hyperactivity,and apprehensive expectations and thoughts- Depression- mood disorders in which the individual suffers fromdepression- an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life- Generalized Anxiety Disorder-Psychological disorder marked by persistent anxiety for at least 6 moths, and in which the individual is unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety- Panic Disorder- anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and with no specific cause- Phobias- Anxiety disorder characterized by an irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation- OCD- Anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or urges to performrepetitive, ritualistic behavior to prevent or produce some future situation- Post-traumatic stress disorder- Anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event, a severely oppressive situation, cruel abuse, or a natural or unnatural disaster- Major depressive disorder- Psychological disorder involving a major depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness, for at least two weeks- Dysthymic disorder- mood disorder that is generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than major depressive disorder- Prefrontal cortex- depressed individuals show lower levels of brain activity in a section of the prefrontal cortex that is involved in generating actions as well as regions of the brain associated with the perception of rewards in the environment- Substance P- some research suggests that problems in regulating a neurotransmitter called substance P might be involved in depression Thought to play an important role in the psychological experience of pain- Serotonin& Norepinephrine – individuals with major depressive disorder seem to have too few receptors for the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine- Learned helplessness-an individual’s feelings of powerlessness after exposure to aversive circumstances over which the person has no control- Rumination- a way of thinking that involves worrying about a topic without finding a resolution- Bipolar disorder- mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state- Anorexia nervosa- eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation- Bulimia nervosa- eating disorder in which an individual (typically a girl or woman ) consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating disorder- Binge eating- eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating- Dissociative disorders- psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity due to the dissociation (separation) of the individual’s conscious awareness from previous memories and thoughts- Amygdala & Hippocampus – associated with memory; psychopaths tend to have structural abnormalities in the amygdala as well as the hippocampus- Dissociative fugue- dissociative disorder in which the individual not only develops amnesia but also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity- Dissociative amnesia- dissociative disorder characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress- Dissociative identity disorder- Formerly called multiple personality disorder, a dissociative disorder in which the individual has two or more distinct personalities or selves, each with its own memories, behaviors, and relationships- Schizophrenia- severe psychological disorder characterized by highly disordered thought processes; individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be referred to as psychotic because they are so far removed from reality- Hallucinations vs. Delusionso Hallucinations- sensory experiences that occur in the absence of real stimulio Delusions- false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual’s culture- Positive vs negative symptoms of schizophrenia; characterized by a distortion or an excess of normal functionso Positive-hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and disorders of movemento Negative-social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions Flat affect- the display of little or no emotion- a common negative symptom of schizophrenia- Catania- state of immobility and unresponsiveness lasting for long periods of time- Antisocial disorder- Psychological disorder characterized by guiltlessness, law-breaking, exploitation of

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GSU PSYC 1101 - Chapter 12 Study Guide

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