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Chapter 14 Study Guide- Behavioral medicine vs. health psychologyo Behavioral- an interdisciplinary field that focuses on developing and integrating behavioral and biomedical knowledge to promote health and reduce illness; overlaps with and is sometimes indistinguishable from health psychologyo Health-a subfield of psychology that emphasizes psychology’s role in establishing and maintaining health and preventing and treating illnesses- Theory of reasoned action- theoretical model stating that effective change requires individuals to have specific intensions about their behaviors, as well as positive attitudes about a new behavior, and to perceive that their social group looks positively on the new behavior as well- Theory of planned behavior- theoretical model that includes the basic ideas of the theory of reasoned action but adds the person’s perceptions of control over the outcome- States of change model- theoretical model describing a five-step process by which individuals give up bad habits and adopt healthier lifestyles- Self-determination theory- Deci and Ryan’s theory asserting that all humans have three basic, innate organismic needs; competence, relatedness, and autonomy- Implementation intentions- specific strategies for dealing withthe challenges of making a life change- Types of support- social support; information and feedback from others indicating that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and included in a network of communication and mutual obligationo Tangible assistance- family and friends can provide goods and services in stressful circumstances, as when gifts of food are given after the death of a loved oneo Information- individuals who extend support can also recommend specific strategies to help the person under stress cope. Friends may notice that a coworker is overloaded with work and suggest better ways of managing time or delegating taskso Emotional support-individuals under stress often suffer emotionally and may develop depression, anxiety, or loss of self-esteem. Friends and family can reassure the stressed person that he or she is valuable and loved. Knowing that others care allows a person to manage stresswith greater assurance- Effects of diverse social networks- a study was conducted that found that people with more diverse social networks were less likely to get a cold than their counterparts with less diverse social networks. - Religious participation-religious faith is strongly related to maintaining a healthy lifestyle and good health. A number of studies have definitively linked religious participation to a longer and healthier life. The links that religious participation provides to social support as well as the sense of life meaning and a bufferagainst the effects of stressful life events also likely have an effect on this- Big 5o Conscientiousness- (responsible, reliable, like structure andfinishing tasks) considered to be the most important of the big five traits when it comes to health, healthy living, and longevity. Tend to do the things that are good for their health like exercising, eating healthy etc.o Personal control- (internal locus of control) linked to reduced stress during difficult times, and a lower risk for common chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These individuals are less likely to participate in risky activities. Overall, self control has been related to emotional well-being, successful coping with a stressful event, healthy behavior change, and good healtho Self-efficacy- (an individual’s belief that he or she can master a situation and produce positive outcomes). Related to success, production of positive outcomes, healthier life choices like reducing substance abuse and safe sex- Optimists vs. Pessimists- Optimism is linked to positive functioning and adjustment. Researchers have found that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one’s health, while pessimism is linked to engaging in self-compromising behaviors.- General adaptation syndrome-(GAS)- Selye’s term for the common effects of stressful demands on the body, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustiono Alarm- the body’s first reaction to a stressor. A temporary state of shock during which resistance to illness and stress falls below normal limits. The body releases hormones that adversely affect the functioning of the immune system & the body’s network of natural defenseso Resistance- glands throughout the body manufacture different hormones that protect the individual. During this stage the body’s immune system can fight off infection with remarkable efficiencyo Exhaustion- occurs if the body’s all-out effort to combat stress fails and the stress persists, the individual moves into this stage.- HPA axis- hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis- the complex set of interactions among the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, andthe adrenal glands that regulates various body processes and controls reactions to stressful events- CRH- corticotrophin-releasing hormone; released when the brain detects a threat in the environment. It stimulates the pituitary gland to produce another hormone that causes the adrenal glands to release cortisol, the stress hormone, which directs cellsto make sugar, fat, and protein available in the body can take quick action- Psychoneuroimmunology-a new field of scientific inquiry that explores connections among psychological factors (such as attitudes and emotions), the nervous system, and the immune system- Type A vs Type Bo Type A- A cluster of characteristics- including being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient and hostile- that are related to higher incidence of heart diseaseo Type B- A cluster of characteristics- including being relaxedand easygoing- that are related to a lower incidence of heart disease- NK-cell- natural killer cell; diminished in the blood of cancer patients. Low NK-cell activity is linked with the development of further malignancies, and the length of survival for the cancerpatient is related to Nk-cell activity. Thus, stress is a factor in therisk for cancer- Lazarus- believed that people appraise events in two steps: primary appraisal and secondary appraisal. o Primary- individual’s interpret whether an even involves harm or loss that has already occurs, a threat of some future danger, or a challenge to overcomeo Secondary- individuals evaluate their resources and determine how effectively they can be

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GSU PSYC 1101 - Chapter 14 Study Guide

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