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Montclair EAES 104 - Introduction to Natural Disasters Review Questions Module 1

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Name: Learning Unit 1: Introduction to Natural Disasters Review QuestionsThis assignment is designed to assess your understanding of Unit 1 and includes some of the Ques-tions for Review at the end of Chapter 1 from your text plus a few additional questions. Each ques-tion can be answered in one to two sentences. Please limit yourself to a maximum of three sen-tences. Access the assignment, complete it with ANSWERS IN A DIFFERENT COLOR separate file, and send it back for evaluation and grading through the assignment tab by or before the due date.. 1. What are some reasons people live in geologically dangerous areas?People choose to live in geologically dangerous areas for the natural beauty, such as streams and beaches, as well as fertile or cheap land. 2. Is the geological landscape controlled by gradual and unrelenting processes or intermittent large events with little action in between? Provide an example to illustrate. The global landscape is controlled by intermittent large events. For example, while streams may be clear for most of the year, they may erode their channels during floods as water carries more sediment. 3. Some natural disasters happen when the equilibrium of a system is disrupted. What are some examples?Some examples are landslides becoming soaked with water, or volcano bulges collapses causing an eruption. 4. Contrast the general nature of catastrophic losses in developed countries versus poor countries. Developing/underdeveloped countries typically see more people die from natural disasters. Developed countries, such as the United States, would experience more economic losses than deaths. This is likely due to the public policies America has regarding natural disasters. 5. What are the main reasons for the ever-increasing costs of catastrophic events?The world population keeps increasing, and migration to dangerous areas.6. If people should not live in especially dangerous areas, what beneficial use is there for those areas?One example of a beneficial use for such an area would be a flood plain, so that nature can take its course without devastating humans. 7. When is a large event such as a major earthquake not a disaster?If a large event such as an earthquake or volcanic eruption happens in a remotearea and does not have a negative effect on humans, it is not considered a disaster.8. When an insurance company decides on the cost of an insurance policy for a natural hazard, what are the two main deciding factors?Insurance companies decide on policies based on risk. Risk is assessed using anequation with two main factors. First, the probability of a natural hazard occurring, and second, the cost of the probable loss from that event. 9. Describe the general relationship between the frequency and magnitude of an event?M ∝ 1/fThe magnitude of an event is “inversely proportional” to the frequency of an event. Basically, magnitude refers to the amount of energy produced by an event, and frequency is the “recurrence interval” of the event, or how likely it isthat an event of that magnitude will occur. 10. When people or governmental agencies try to restrict or control the activities of nature, what is the general result?People typically do not like when the government or private agencies try to restrict land usage, regardless of the safety concerns. Developers and private citizens often feel that it is not the government’s place to control where they are allowed to live or build, and that they are responsible for their own safety and the risk associated with that land. However, the government usually feels that it is responsible for keeping its citizens safe, so there is a bit of a paradox. If the government infringes upon their land-ownership rights, then they are eroding civil liberties, which results in other problems. It is a very tricky area, especially since much of this land has already been developed. 11. What kind of information must be assembled to make hazard predictions?While there are some recurring events, called cyclic events, that can be predicted, there are usually too many variables to get an accurate prediction. That being said, a lot of different data must be assembled before making a prediction. Most often, scientists look at data from past events to help them understand the likelihood of future events. Statistics and linear models are very helpful. 12. What is a precursor event?A precursor event is an event that happens prior to a larger natural event. The textbook gives the example of minor earthquakes leading up to the eruption of Mt. Saint Helens in 1980. These small events can indicate a larger event is on the way, such as small tremors before a large earthquake. 13. Explain how population growth increases the number of disasters.As the world population grows, more people move into high-risk areas. These high-risk areas are especially vulnerable to natural events, so disasters are much more likely to occur. High-risk areas that were once remote can be settledwith larger populations, turning remote areas into disaster regions.14. What are the stages of disaster recovery?Disaster recovery includes three stages: assessment, restoration, and recovery. First, damage needs to be assessed, insurance claims made, and government relief plans organized. Then, these plans are implemented. Money is allocated to those affected, and they can begin the rebuilding process. Finally, the final phase is when things start transitioning to a pre-disaster state. For example, theboardwalk reopening for business after Hurricane Sandy. 15. Provide 3 methods of hazard mitigation.1. Land use planning2. Insurance3. Public education about disaster

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