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UH KIN 3304 - Review Assignment 1: Chapters 1-3

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The Cell

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KIN3304 Review Assignment Unit 1: Chapters 1-3 Write the definition or description of the following terms: Flexion- bending movement that results in a decrease in a joint angle by moving bones apart. Anexample, by using the elbow joint, is when you’re moving the hand towards the shoulder. EX:humerus movement anteriorly and superiorly in the sagittal plane about a frontal axis. Extension- straightening movement that results in an increase of the angle in a joint by movingbones apart. An example, by using the elbow joint, is when the hand moves away from theshoulder. Adduction- Lateral movement towards the midline of the body within the front plane, an examplewould be the down part of jumping jacks. Abduction- lateral movement away from the midline of the trunk within the front plane. Anexample would be the up motion when doing jumping jacks. Internal Rotation- Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of a bone towards the midlineof the body. An example would be the “i’m shy” foot motion”. External Rotation- Rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of a bone away from themidline of the body. An example would be VARUS .Complete the chart by filling in the proper name of the joint and then listing the movementsof the joint under the plane of motion in which they occurPlanes of motionsCommon NameProper NameSagittalLateralTransversePlane JointArthrodialflexion/extensionAdduction/abductionInternal/external rotationBall-and-Socket JointEnarthroidalflexion/extensionAdduction/abductionInternal/external rotationHinge JointGinglymusFlexion/extension- A ques(on to ask on the test would be how many degrees of freedom does a ‘whatever joint’ have? Degrees of freedom is directly correlated to the number of planes it can move in. EX: degrees of freedom for saddle joint=3 Degrees of freedom for pivot joint=1 - when asked what axis of rota(on a joint is one, the axis is perpendicular to the plane of mo(on it is on. EX: sagittal plane of motion = frontal axis of rotation Frontal plane of motion = sagittal axis of rotation Transverse plane of motion = vertical axis of rotation - 3 different types of joints Synarthrodial: these types of joints are immovable and can be found in places like the sutures in the skull or the gomphosis of the tooth anchors Amphiarthrodial : These joints are slightly moveable and can be found in the pubis, sternoclavicular joint, and syndesmosis between the tibia and fibula. Diarthrodial: These joints are free to move and able to go on all axis’ of rotation and have up to 3 degrees of freedom. -Condyloid/condyloid joints: this is a type of joint in which bones permit movement in two planes without rotation. An example would be the wrist (radiocarpal joint) between the radius and proximal row of the carpal bones. Also the metacarpophalangeal joints in the fingers. Pivot JointTrochoidalInternal and external rotationCondyloid JointCondyloidextension/flexionabduction/adductionSaddle JointSellarflexion/extensionabduction/adduction,internal/external rotation.-Enarthrodial/ball and socket joints: permits movement in all planes, an example would be the shoulder or hip. - Ginglymus/Hinge joint: Permits a wide range of motion but only on one plane. Examples of this would be the elbow, ankle, and knee joints. sellar/saddle joint: permits ball and socket movement with exception of slight rotation. Found in the thumb between carpal and metacarpal connection. - Trochoidal/pivot joint: This type of joint has a rotational movement around a long axis. An example would be the rotation of the radius and ulna at the proximal and distal radioulnar joints. For each of the following exercises, write the type of contraction (isometric, concentric, or eccentric), ifany, in the cell of the muscle group that is contracting. Place a dash in the cell if there is no contractionoccurring. Hint: In many cases, you will only have contraction in one muscle group or the other, notboth. In some instances you may have more than one type of contraction in the same muscle groupsthroughout various portions of the exercises. If so, list them in the order of occurrence.ExerciseQuadricepsHamstringsa. Begin sitting on the edge of the table with your knee in full extension.Maintain your knee infull extension.isometricVery slowly flex yourknee maximally.1-Eccentric, for before it reaches  90 degrees with theknee2-Concentric, for after it reaches thepoint where your heel is almost at yourbutt.Maintain your knee infull flexion.isometric, holding heel at butt. Its that partin sitting hamstring curls where it is closestto you.Maintain your knee inapproximately 90 degrees of flexion.Sitting downwith knee’shanging. Nocontraction willoccurNo contraction occurringFrom the fully flexedposition, slowly extendyour knee fully.2-concentric,starts only after 90 degrees is reaches. (90-180)1- eccentric, knee is at your butt andmoving towards 90 degrees then quadstake over. (0-90)b. Stand on one leg and move the other knee as directedMaintain your knee in fullextension.No contractionoccurring, the 1 down legacts as support.No contraction occurring.Very slowly flex yourknee maximally.Concentric, heel to butt.From the fully flexedposition, slowly extendyour knee fully.Eccentric, put leg back out.As the quadriceps contract concentrically they will extend the knee As the quadriceps contract eccentrically they will flex the knee As the hamstrings contract concentrically they will flex the knee As the hamstrings contract eccentrically they will extend the knee To maintain anything will mean that the contrac(on is either not happening or isometric. There would be no contrac(on if there is something there to support the muscles so that they would not need to ac(vely maintain it. Next to each

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