LIBERTY PHIL 201 - philosophy Study Guide Lesson 7 (3 pages)

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philosophy Study Guide Lesson 7



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philosophy Study Guide Lesson 7

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3
School:
Liberty University
Course:
Phil 201 - Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas
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PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE LESSON 7 Introducing Metaphysics Lesson Overview Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions of reality Since it deals with literally everything that exists it is perhaps the broadest branch of philosophy However we will briefly spend time in this area In this lesson we will introduce some of the questions that we seek to answer in metaphysics as well as some basic metaphysical terminology you will need to master as we discuss metaphysical issues We will also discuss the issue of method in arriving at answers to our metaphysical questions Tasks Review and take notes of the presentation Metaphysical Terminology Know the 4 characteristics of properties 1 Properties are universal 2 Properties are immutable 3 Properties are eternal 4 Properties inhere in things Know the 4 characteristics of substances 1 Substances are particular things can only be in one place at a time 2 Substances can change and are not necessarily eternal 3 Substances are fundamental existants do not inhere in things 4 Substances have causable powers they can cause things Know the different kinds of properties and substances Two types of properties 1 Accidental properties properties which a particular thing may or may not posses they are not essential to what the thing is color weight personality 2 Essential properties properties which a particular thing must posses they are necessary to what the thing is all humans are rational emotional and willful capacities Two types of substances 1 Material substances substances are out of matter natural kinds occur naturally Artificial kinds man made things 2 Immaterial substances substances not made from matter God angels mind Know the difference between property substance and essence 1 Property Characteristic or feature attributed to an object 2 Substance I a fundamental or characteristic quality or particular things of a certain kind Identify a person based on particular things about them II physical matter or what something is really made of 3 Essence the most basic and necessary property that make something to be that something Know three different views of essence Page 1 of 3 PHIL 201 Read Chapter 1 of Metaphysics Constructing a World View Introducing Metaphysics As you do make sure you understand the following points and questions Explain the 3 metaphysical questions What is the meaning of ultimately real Basic constituants of reality We are familiar with the idea that things can be broken down into their constituants Why is man s place in the real significant Know the method for doing metaphysics and the 2 rules of thumb 1 we may take as premises for a metaphysical argument anything we know or have good reason to believe to be true 2 No belief no matter how firmly held or apparently well supported is beyond the possibility of challenge or question Identify the 3 kinds of beliefs we may take as our staring point in metaphysical investigation 1 Good reasons 2 Good reasons to believe 3 Reasoning based on other things we know to be true Explain the role of authority in metaphysical investigation including the different types of authorities 1 Legal authority all situations in which some person or group of persons has the right simply to decide something which henceforth is so just because it has been decided that way 2 Expert authority in which certain persons are relied on for information because of special experinces or expertise 3 Religious authority in which truths are proclaimed by God or by someone authorized to speak on behalf of God Describe the relationship between Christian theology and philosophical investigation noting the important distinctions 1 Distinction between the content of one s beliefs and the reasons for that belief between what is believed and why it is believed 2 Distinction between one s final overall conclusion about the way things are and what can be ascertaind thru the methodology of a particular discipline What is the function of a metaphysical theory Functions similar to scientific theory they serive to unify areas of our experiences and make them understandable to us Explain 3 ways we can evaluate metaphysical theories 1 Predictable and testable 2 Logically consistent 3 Explanatory power Page 2 of 3 PHIL 201 Terms Make sure you can explain the following terms and concepts Property a characteristic of an object Accidental Property properties which a particular thing may or may not posses they are not essential to what the thing is Essential Property properties which a particular thing must posses they are necessary to what the thing is Substance see above Universal repeatable or recurrent entities that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things Particular Essence the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is and which it has by necessity and without which it loses its identity Metaphysical Realism the view that most of the objects that populate the world exist independently of our thought and have their natures independently of how if at all we conceive of them Nominalism a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates Conceptualism Basic Constituent Wholism Metaphysical Data Legal Authority Expert Authority Religious Authority Factual Adequacy Logical Consistency Explanatory Power Page 3 of 3


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