# LIBERTY PHIL 201 - Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 4 (4 pages)

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## Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 4

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- Pages:
- 4
- School:
- Liberty University
- Course:
- Phil 201 - Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas

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PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE LESSON 4 A Little Logic Lesson Overview Logic is the primary tool or methodology in studying philosophy Philosophy is about analyzing and constructing arguments and a good understanding of the basics of logical reasoning is essential in performing that task The next 3 lessons will focus on logic and analyzing arguments In this lesson you will first be introduced to the laws of logic These are the first principles for all reasoning We will then discuss the specialized terminology we use in logic Finally we will examine 2 major kinds of logical reasoning deductive and inductive We will consider different forms of arguments under each and discuss how to evaluate these arguments Take note that a large part of this lesson is about learning the terminology for logic Tasks Read and take notes from Prelude to Philosophy Chapter 5 A Little Logic As you read make sure you understand the following points and questions Why are the laws of logic foundational the laws of logic make discourse possible if they are not recognized as true then nothing we claim makes any sense List and explain the 3 laws of logic 1 law of non contradiction something cannot both be and not be at the same time and in the same respect 2 law of excluded middle something either is or is not 3 law of identity something is what it is Know the symbolic expression of the law of non contradiction and how it clears up confusions P P 2 not both and logical formula it is not the cause that there can be both P and non P this clears up confusion concerning the law because the logical opposite of black is nonblack and not white so it includes any color and isn t just black and white Explain the common confusion concerning God and contradictions claim God is omnipotent and can do anything including contradictions Uses matt 19 26 but it means all things that can possibly be can be possible with God not that all things are possible God cannot both exist and not exist at the same time and in the same respect Know the symbolic expression of the Law of Excluded Middle Why is it called the Law of Excluded Middle P v P either P or non P it excludes the possibility of something in the middle of existence and nonexistence there is no such thing as something half existing and half not existing Know why the laws of logic are self evident They are not In need of any proof beyond themselves they prove themselves Know the three parts of an argument Two premises reasons and a conclusion Page 1 of 4 PHIL 201 Distinguish the language of evaluating arguments deductive and inductive from how we evaluate propositions 1 deductive considered sound when it is valid and the premises are true if one assumes the premises are true then the conclusion must be true if the reasoning is valid 2 inductive considered cogent when it is strong and the premises are true Explain the relationship between truth value of the propositions with the validity strength of the argument The truth value of the propositions has nothing to do with its validity or strength and validity or strength has nothing to do with truth value an argument can be valid or strong with all false propositions and it can be invalid or weak with all true propositions Know the point about agreeing with the conclusion of an argument and it being a good argument It is not claiming that the premises are true but claims that if one assumes the premises are true then the conclusion must be true if the reasoning is valid the premises guarantee the conclusion with logical certainty Know the kind of conclusion arrived at by a valid deductive argument If the premises are assumed to be true it is impossible for the conclusion to be false Note the difference in terminology between the laws of logic and the rules of valid inference Explain the categorical syllogism you did not need to memorize the chart nor the 6 rules of valid inference Features 3 categorical propositions a major premise a minor premise and the conclusion Explain the disjunctive syllogism and know the fallacy Is an either or statement that affirms or denies something in terms of two alternates fallacy of affirming the alternant affirming one of the alternatives in the second premise doesn t get me to any conclusion Explain what a hypothetical proposition is doing and what it is not doing Affirms or denies something in terms of an antecedent expressed as an if and a consequent expressed as a then Explain the hypothetical syllogism and know the two fallacies The pure hypothetical syllogism uses only hypothetical propositions for the two premises and the conclusion the mixed hypo syllogism employs a hypothetical proposition for the first premise but then uses categorical propositions for the second premise and conclusion fallacy of affirming the consequent the premise allows for the possibility of other ways to pass the course therefore the conclusion doesn t follow that you did the work s you may have passed another way fallacy of denying the antecedent since doing work is only a sufficient condition for passing the course it is possible that there may be other ways of passing Contrast induction with deduction 1 deduction valid argument conclusion follows necessarily from the premises 2 induction the conclusion only probably follows from the premises How are inductive arguments evaluated in comparison to deductive arguments and what makes an argument stronger or weaker 1 deductive two options valid invalid Page 2 of 4 PHIL 201 2 induction a strong argument is one where assuming the premises are true the conclusion probably follows the conclusion for a strong argument could be extremely probable very probable or somewhat probable Explain the 6 forms of inductive arguments 1 Generalization 2 Analogy 3 predictions based on the probability calculus 4 statistical reasoning 5 casual inference 6 argument based on authority Know the idea of relevant similarity concerning analogies Analogies are successful in observing relevantly similar particulars and can arrive at a probable conclusion based on that similarity View the Presentation Deductive and Inductive Arguments as it is a good summary of some of the reading in this module week Terms Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts Laws of Logic the first principles of logic Law of Non Contradiction something cannot be and not be at the same time in the same respect Law of Excluded Middle something either is or is not Self Evident they prove themselves and do

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