LIBERTY PHIL 201 - Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 4 (4 pages)

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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 4



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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 4

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Pages:
4
School:
Liberty University
Course:
Phil 201 - Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas

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PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE LESSON 4 A Little Logic Lesson Overview Logic is the primary tool or methodology in studying philosophy Philosophy is about analyzing and constructing arguments and a good understanding of the basics of logical reasoning is essential in performing that task The next 3 lessons will focus on logic and analyzing arguments In this lesson you will first be introduced to the laws of logic These are the first principles for all reasoning We will then discuss the specialized terminology we use in logic Finally we will examine 2 major kinds of logical reasoning deductive and inductive We will consider different forms of arguments under each and discuss how to evaluate these arguments Take note that a large part of this lesson is about learning the terminology for logic Tasks Read and take notes from Prelude to Philosophy Chapter 5 A Little Logic As you read make sure you understand the following points and questions Why are the laws of logic foundational the laws of logic make discourse possible if they are not recognized as true then nothing we claim makes any sense List and explain the 3 laws of logic 1 law of non contradiction something cannot both be and not be at the same time and in the same respect 2 law of excluded middle something either is or is not 3 law of identity something is what it is Know the symbolic expression of the law of non contradiction and how it clears up confusions P P 2 not both and logical formula it is not the cause that there can be both P and non P this clears up confusion concerning the law because the logical opposite of black is nonblack and not white so it includes any color and isn t just black and white Explain the common confusion concerning God and contradictions claim God is omnipotent and can do anything including contradictions Uses matt 19 26 but it means all things that can possibly be can be possible with God not that all things are possible God cannot both exist and not exist at the same time and in the same respect Know the symbolic expression of the Law of Excluded Middle Why is it called the Law of Excluded Middle P v P either P or non P it excludes the possibility of something in the middle of existence and nonexistence there is no such thing as something half existing and half not existing Know why the laws of logic are self evident They are not In need of any proof beyond themselves they prove themselves Know the three parts of an argument Two premises reasons and a conclusion Page 1 of 4 PHIL 201 Distinguish the language of evaluating arguments deductive and inductive from how we evaluate propositions 1 deductive considered sound when it is valid and the premises are true if one assumes the premises are true then the conclusion must be true if the reasoning is valid



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