LIBERTY PHIL 201 - Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 10 (3 pages)

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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 10



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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 10

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School:
Liberty University
Course:
Phil 201 - Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas
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PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE LESSON 10 What Is Epistemology And What Is Knowledge Lesson Overview With this lesson we begin a new unit on epistemology which is the philosophical study of knowledge claims In this first lesson on epistemology Dew and Foreman discuss some of the basic issues raised in the study of epistemology and then discuss the nature of knowledge itself They consider questions such as What do we mean when we say we know something What exactly is knowledge Tasks View and take notes of the presentation What is Knowledge Describe the 3 different ways we use the term know 1 Knowledge by aquantance 2 Knowledge as competency 3 Knowledge of truth claims Explain the traditional definition of knowledge from Plato o Knowledge as justified true belief o Necessary conditions for belief o Makes claim o Is true o Have good reasons for believing Know what each aspect of the traditional definition means Read Chapters 1 What is Epistemology and 2 What is Knowledge of How Do We Know As you do make sure you understand the following points and questions What are the kinds of questions arise in the study of epistemology 1 What does it mean to say that we know something 2 How do we come to know various things 3 What is truth and how do we find it 4 What does it mean to have epistemic justification and is this necessary 5 What are epistemological virtues and are they helpful to us 6 How reliable are our perceptions 7 Can we have certainty Know the kinds of questions that preoccupy epistemologists 1 problems of justification 2 defeasibility Know the basic reasons why the study of epistemology is important 1 It is unnatural and unfruitful to avoid epistemological questions we by nature as humans long for knowledge and depend on it for all aspects of life and not asking questions cuts off natural and needed intellectual growth for some questions the stakes are so high that we would be fools not to seek the best possible answers and information that may be available PHIL 201 What are the different ways that the word know might be used 1 Describe an acquaintance I know Bill knowledge by acquaintance 2 Describe a skill I know French knowledge as competency 3 Knowledge of a truth claim I know that John F Kennedy was president Propositional knowledge How did Plato define knowledge o Justified true belief Know the difference between true opinion and knowledge o opinion is that which we hear about o knowledge is what we reason What are some of the basic problems concerns with JTB o The difference between the criteria of justification and truth is a bit vague Beliefs are justified when there is some evidence for the belief and are true when the evidence is overwhelming What is the Gettier Problem o Cases in which all three criteria are met JTB but knowledge does not result It reminds us that it is possible that our justification even when we have it may be faulty or founded on weak or invalid inferences What are some of the common strategies for resolving the Gettier Problem o Adding a fourth condition sometimes referred to as the defensibility condition Undefeated Justified True Belief Is JTB of any value to us after the Gettier Problem o Yes JTB does seem to give us a sense of what knowledge is and can still be thought of as a necessary condition for knowledge Gutter examples are rather odd and unusual instances Terms Make sure you can explain the following terms and concepts PHIL 201 Epistemology A branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of our knowledge Philosophy of knowledge how we know Traditional Definition of Knowledge Justified true belief Justified True Belief the sufficient and necessary condition for knowledge are that I believe something is true that is in fact is true and that I have good reasons for believing it Gettier Problem challenged the long held justified true belief or JTB account of knowledge Necessary Condition something that must happen or exist in order for something else to happen or exist Sufficient Condition a condition or set of conditions that will produce the event Knowledge by Acquaintance I know Bill Knowledge as Competency I know how to speak English Propositional Knowledge I know that so and so is president True Opinion can lead to successful decision making but lacks justification A true belief that you arrive at by accident Belief what people believe in Justification attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs Truth the property of sentences assertions beliefs thoughts or propositions that are said in ordinary discourse to agree with the facts or to state what is the case Reliabilist Accounts of Knowledge


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