LIBERTY PHIL 201 - Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 6 (2 pages)

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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 6



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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 6

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2
School:
Liberty University
Course:
Phil 201 - Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas
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PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE LESSON 6 Analyzing Arguments Lesson Overview In our final lesson on logic and arguing we discuss the tasks of constructing and analyzing an argument Throughout the rest of this course you will be introduced to a variety of theories that attempt to answer some puzzling philosophical questions These theories will argue for a particular way to answer the questions and you will want to be able to evaluate those arguments to see if you agree with them or not This lesson will give you a tactical approach in how to perform the tasks of analyzing and evaluating arguments as well as how to construct an argument of your own Tasks View and take notes on the video Analyzing Arguments It aims to orient you to the main issues in the reading Read and take notes from Chapter 7 of Prelude to Philosophy Analyzing Arguments As you read make sure to understand the following points and questions Why is clarity important for a good argument Being clear of what you are defending the structure of your reasoning and how the premises lead to the conclusion need to be clearly communicated Must use appropriate language and define any terms that need clarification Avoid using clich s ambiguity and vagueness What is the difference between consistent and coherent 1 Consistent within a set of beliefs none of them contradict one another 2 Coherent the beliefs relate together in a way that is mutually supportive What determines how comprehensive an argument needs to be Good arguments consider all know reasonable alternatives and arguments for aview and can account for them as part of the overall argument Not every alternative needs to be presented What are the 2 basic approaches to structuring an argument 1 State the conclusion first followed by the premises 2 State the premises and then follow with a therefore type of conclusion Explain the idea of fair use of evidence Good arguments use evidence fairly and avoid suppressing evidence in favor of a particular position do not have the option of being selective toward evidence considered Philosophy does not allow you to ignore or suppress evidence in hopes that it will disappear What is a positive negative approach and what is the advantage of using it What is the advantage of a best explanation approach The existence of God is the best explanation for the effects we observe List and explain the 5 aspects of a best explanation What is the principle of simplicity and what is a danger concerning it What is the very first task in analyzing an argument What are 3 ways to find the conclusion in an argument What is the common standard logical order for an argument Page 1 of 2 PHIL 201 Terms Why do we ask about the premises supporting the conclusion before asking about the truthfulness of the premises What are the 2 reasons arguments fail How does observing language help us to determine the reliability of the premises What is meant by examples being representative What is a counterexample Explain the problems of unqualified and conflicting authorities and how to resolve them What are some of the traps to watch out for when arguing causally Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts Consistency a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction Coherence There are two distinct types of coherentism One is the coherence theory of truth the other the coherence theory of justification Comprehensive Philosophy is critical and comprehensive thought the most critical and comprehensive manner of thinking which the human species has yet devised This intellectual process includes both an analytic and synthetic mode of operation Explanatory Scope Considers the quality of facts accounted by our explanation Explanatory Power when choosing between two views the one that explains all the facts with the least amount of problems is the best to choose Plausible This has to do with the explanation fitting w our background knowledge Ad Hoc The explanation with the least amount of ad hoc details is considered the better one Illumination The doctrine holds that human beings require a special divine assistance in their ordinary cognitive activities Occam s Razor is a problem solving principle devised by William of Ockham c 1287 1347 who was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian Indicator Terms 1 Therefore 2 So 3 It follows that 4 Hence 5 Thys 6 We may infer that 7 We may conclude that 8 consequently Inferential Link Counterexample 1 Determine the pattern of the argument 2 Make up a new argument where the premises are obviously true but the conclusion is false Causal Argument such an argument attempts to establish that one thing causes another Page 2 of 2


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