LIBERTY PHIL 201 - Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 11 (4 pages)

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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 11



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Philosophy Study Guide Lesson 11

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4
School:
Liberty University
Course:
Phil 201 - Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas

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PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE LESSON 11 Acquiring Knowledge Lesson Overview In our introductory lesson in epistemology we defined knowledge as justified true belief In our last lesson we discussed the truth aspect of this definition In this lesson we want to examine the belief element Knowledge begins by adopting beliefs and one question philosophers have deliberated about for centuries has to do with the source of our beliefs where do they come from That is the subject of our reading and our presentation There is some overlap between these but consider one as expounding upon the other Tasks View and take notes on the presentation How are Beliefs Acquired According to Plato how do we learn things o Rationalism Two worlds world of being and world of becoming Encounter forms Born with knowledge and learning is then a process of recollection of what we already know How did Descartes arrive at the existence of God Matter o Geometric method ca know something through intuition and deduction Doubted everything only existence can t be doubted Explain Kant s combination of empiricism and rationalism and his radical conclusion o Kart s combination of Ratonalism and Empiricism is an agreement with Hum sreasoning in sense knowledge but not Hume s conclusion Kant believed that he could know some things about the world He also believed that we were born withan innate category of understanding that helps us to understand sense experience Read and take notes on Chapter 3 of How Do You Know A Short Introduction to the Issues of Epistemology Where Does Knowledge Come From As you do consider the following questions and points List the 5 sources for knowledge 1 Reason 2 Experience 3 Testimony 4 Revelation 5 faith Explain Plato s doctrine of the forms and the 2 worlds and why Plato was hesitant to build a theory of knowledge on the physical world o That ultimate reality was not in the individual physical objects of our experience which are subject to constant change but in the metaphysical entities know as forms The forms are unchanging abstract metaphysical entities that transcend Page 1 of 4 PHIL 201 time and space are unmixed with any other entities or qualities and are the model for all physical objects that resemble the form itself How do we gain true knowledge according to Plato o By approaching an object with thought alone without associating any site or dragging in any sense perception Explain Plato s divided line o That reality itself might be split into two different realms the physical below and the metaphysical What was Descartes searching for and how did he conduct that search o The father of modern philosophy He was searching for a way to establish knowledge with absolute certainty He went about this by doubting everything except for those ideas which were clear and distinct in his mind Why can Descartes be certain about is existence o He began to doubt almost everything including his own body but realized



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