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BIO 1201 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8The Science Of Life (Chapter 1)Lecture 1 (January 15)1. Life is organized and requires energya. Organized: cells create tissues, which make organs, which make organ systems; organisms form populations, which form communities, which form ecosystemsb. Energy is acquired through photosynthesis (converting solar energy into sugars) in plants; consumers (e.g., animals) eat these plants to receive energyi. Finding energy usually involves movement in response to the environment2. Community vs ecosystema. Communities consist of interacting populations (different species) and ecosystems are formed when communities interact with the environment3. Classifying living organisms (kingdoms and domains)a. Classifying organisms helps scientists understand what they do and their place in the worldb. Domains are the broadest level of classification and include Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryac. Kingdoms are the second broadest category; the kingdoms of Eukarya include Plantae and AnimaliaLecture 2 (January 20)1. Nature of sciencea. Science offers natural explanations for the natural world; not built to answer questions about the supernatural2. Discovery vs hypothesis-driven sciencea. Discovery: exploring the natural world, discovering new species, sending space probes, etc.b. Hypothesis-driven: uses scientific method3. Scientific methoda. Observation: forming a question about something observed in natureb. Hypothesis: potential answer to formed question; must be testablec. Prediction: if the hypothesis is true, then test results should be…d. Experiment: tests hypothesis; must have controlse. Collect and interpret dataf. Draw conclusions: verify or nullify the hypothesisg. Results must be reproducibleh. Peer reviewi. If conclusions do not stand the test of time, they must be revised4. Hypothesis formation (must be testable)5. What is a scientific theory / law / hypothesisa. Theory: explanation of a comprehensive range of related phenomena; they have been rigorously tested, but are still open to further tests and revisionsb. Hypothesis: applying a theory to a specific scenario to make predictionsc. Law: based only on repeated observation; explanation is not providedThe Chemical Basis Of Life (Chapter 2)Lecture 4 (January 27)1. Naturally occurring elementsa. Organisms use mainly oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen2. Properties of watera. Major component of all organismsb. Water is polar because oxygen is slightly negative and hydrogen is slightly positive when they form covalent bondsc. Adjacent water molecules can interact with each other via hydrogen bondsi. The number of interacting adjacent water molecules reflects its state of matter3. Polaritya. When molecules are charged due to unequal electronegativity within the molecule4. Hydrophobic – hydrophilic – amphipathica. Hydrophobic: nonpolar molecules that can’t interact with waterb. Hydrophilic: polar molecules that can interact with waterc. Amphipathic: molecules that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions5. Chemical bondsa. Chemical bonds join atoms togetherb. Covalent bonds: when adjacent atoms share electronsc. Ionic bonds: two ions that are attracted to each other because of opposite chargesd. Hydrogen bonds: when a partially positive hydrogen atom is attracted to the partially negative atom of a neighboring moleculeThe Organic Molecules Of Life (Chapter 3)Lecture 5 (January 29)1. Carbona. Forms organic compounds with hydrogenb. Stable when forming four covalent bonds2. Small organic building blocksa. The four major molecules life uses are sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotidesb. Life uses these molecules in many different ways 3. Fats and lipidsa. Made of fatty acids, which are long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxyl groupat one endb. Saturated: when carbons are connected to each other with single bonds, so they are surrounded by the maximum number of hydgrogensi. Solid because chains are straight and can get close together and stackc. Unsaturated: when there is a double bond between adjacent carbons, causing some hydrogens to be losti. This molecule is bent, so it forms liquids because they can’t get as close togetherd. Polyunsaturated: when there are multiple double bonds between carbons4. Sugars / Carbohydratesa. Sugars are made of monosaccharides and form carbohydrates, which are polysaccharides. Examples of carbohydrates are cellulose (plant fiber), starch, and glycogen.Lecture 6 (February 3)1. amino acids / proteina. Amino Acids make up proteinsb. Proteins make up at least 50% of the dry weight of all cells and perform the majority of cell functionsc. Protein function is defined by its shape, which is defined by the sequence of amino acidsthat make up the proteind. Amino acids all have a central carbon covalently bound to hydrogen, an amino group, and carboxylic acid, and an R-group (gives amino acid unique identity)e. Amino acids are covalently bound by peptide bonds to form long, unbranched chainsf. Protein will fold into a shape based on how the amino acids interact with the environment and each otherg. Proteins have four levels of structurei. Primary: sequence of amino acidsii. Secondary: small mini structures within overall shape of many different proteins (alpha helix, pleated sheet)iii. Tertiary: 3-D shape of entire proteiniv. Quaternary: 3-D shape formed b multiple proteins forming a complex2. nucleotides / nucleic acidsa. make up nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)b. All nucleotides contain a phosphate group, a 5-carbon ribose sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base that gives nucleotides identityc. 5 different naturally occurring bases:i. Purines: adenine and guanineii. Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine, and uracild. Complimentary nucleotides are G and C; A and T; and A and Ue. Bases interact at an angle, forming a helical shapeInside The Cell (Chapter 4)Lectures 7 and 8 (February 5 and 10)1. The Cell Theorya. All living things are made up of cells and these cells arise from preexisting living cells2. Cell membranes a. Form a barrier between environment and inside of cellb. Major component of all cell membranes is phospholipids, which form a bilayerc. Semipermeabled. Fluid mosaic3. Organelles (identification and function)a. Nucleus: contains genome (DNA); genetic control of the celli. Typically the largest organelleii. Has two membranes—four layers of phospholipids, called a nuclear envelopeiii. Nuclear membrane is perforated with protein


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