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BIO 1201 1st Edition Lecture 8 Outline of Last Lecture I.CellsII.Cell MembranesIII.Membrane ProteinsIV.Moving Molecules Across a MembraneOutline of Current Lecture V.Typical Eukaryote CellVI.Endomembrane Systema.Nucleusb.Endoplasmic Reticulumc.Golgi ApparatusVII.MitochondriaVIII.CytoskeletonCurrent LectureI. Eukaryote cellsa. Eukaryote means “containing nucleus”II. Endomembrane Systema. Nucleus: contains genome (DNA); genetic control of the celli. Typically the largest organelleii. Has two membranes—four layers of phospholipids, called a nuclear envelopeiii. Nuclear membrane is perforated with protein structures called nuclear pores, which are tubes connecting the cytoplasm and nucleoplasmb. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)i. Network of flattened sacs and tubesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. Continuous with outer membrane of nuclear envelopeiii. Rough ER: closest to nucleus and contains ribosomes, which make proteins; site of protein synthesis for proteins that need to be shipped to other organelles or other cellsiv. Smooth ER: furthest from nucleus and has no ribosomes; site of protein modification and of synthesis of phospholipids, steroids, and fatty acidsc. Golgi Apparatus: i. Similar structure of ER, but not physically connectedii. Accepts materials from ER in vesicles (membrane-bound storage organelles), determines where the materials need to go, repackages themin new vesicles, and ships them out to final destinationIII. Mitochondriaa. Surrounded by double membrane; inner membrane and extensively folded into cristaeb. Inside=matrixc. Powerhouses of the cell—takes up partially degraded fuel molecules (like sugars) and converts the chemical bond energy in that food into chemical bonds making up ATPd. Lynn Margulis: mitochondria have their own DNA and are a result of endosymbiosis (were once bacteria)IV. Cytoskeletona. Provides support for the cellb. Allows cells to movec. Used to move materials within a celld. 3 components:i. Microfilaments: fibers made of a protein called actin; stabilize cell shapeii. Microtubules: long tubes made of tubulin; can be used as tracks in a celliii. Intermediate filaments: only found in multicellular organisms; made of


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