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PHIL 202 1st Edition Lecture 2 Outline of Last Lecture I. Important PeopleII. Modern Philosophy IntroductionIII. Modern Philosophy TopicsOutline of Current Lecture I. Background Information of DescartesII. Descartes’ Discourse on the MethodIII. Philosophy Key TermsIV. First Rules of ThoughtV. Code of MoralsCurrent LectureI. Background Information of Descartes criticized ∙ Aristotelian way of thinking developed ∙ Cartesian grid Math was Descartes’ favorite subject because it is ∙ “a priori” (without experience/ from a principle). Descartes wanted to apply all mathematical knowledge to the world. wrote his book in French, vernacular, instead of Latin∙ was always sick, while writing his book∙II. Descartes’ Discourse on the Method Two methods Descartes uses in his book:∙1. What he tries to teach2. How he goes about teaching itThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.presented as a fable/story rather than a factual and persuasive method; the reader can ∙imitate rather than be convinced. Everyone has ∙ “good sense.” PROBLEM: People don’t use good sense in the right way. Things must be made all at once and according to a plan, ex: cities, laws – ultimate principles ∙should be created rather than laws being made one by one after each crime is committed. Rebuild from foundation∙III. Philosophy Key Terms Method∙ – the way you go about getting knowledge, according to Descartes: how to think the right way to discover truth Epistemology∙ – theory of knowledge; How do I know? Ontology∙ – the notion of being or “what is” Metaphysics∙ – the nature of the world beyond appearances; ex: God, knowledge Syllogism∙ – logical reasoning: a) All men are mortal. b) Socrates is a man. c) Socrates is mortal. ∙ A posteriori – from the physical; senses (empirical knowledge); (opposite of “a priori”)IV. First Rules of Thought1) Rule of clear and distinct ideasa. Clarity – can be analyzed & its parts are known b. Distinctly – know why something is different2) Divide difficulties a. Analysis3) Conduct thoughts in an orderly fashion 4) Review/ remember thinking process (not just the result)V. Code of Morals1) Religion and moral customs must be followed2) Firm and resolute actions3) Don’t rely on/control external world. We only have power to control our thoughts; think:stoicism4) Pursue own


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