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Phil 202 1st Edition Lecture 3 Outline of Last LectureI. Background Information of DescartesII. Descartes’ Discourse on the MethodIII. Philosophy Key TermsIV. First Rules of ThoughtV. Code of Morals Outline of Current Lecture I. Descartes’ Objectives in the First MeditationII. The First Doubt: The SensesCurrent LectureI. Descartes’ Objectives in the First Meditation To use skepticism to discover knowledge/truth:∙1. Epoche – means equanimity/peace of mind, the ancient Greek skeptics sought to reach this state. Descartes does not want this, rather he wants to lead the mind away from the senses.2. Method – skepticism (mental state of everything being in doubt, the belief that knowledge is impossible) To provide reasons for doubt∙1. False beliefs could mean good beliefs are wrong2. Foundationalism3. Coherentism To fnd something that cannot be put to doubt∙II. The First Doubt: The Senses Optical illusions call for doubt:∙1. Stick looks different/distorted when in water2. The church looks rectangular from far away, is really roundThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.∙ Primary Qualities – things something must have whether real or not, ex: extension, shape, quality, quantity, time; Descartes subjects this and even math to doubt. Descartes comes up with the following grounds for doubt (not argument):∙1. Sometimes we take objects in reality to exist when they only exist in our dreams.2. There is no intrinsic difference between dream and waking experience.3. We may be dreaming all the time.Think: idealism – we live in ideal world; our knowledge is our ideas, ex: we don’t know if the square is real but it has certain properties (primary qualities) ∙ Objections to these grounds: presupposes and already establishes a reality and a dream state1. Hobbs – a contemporary of Descartes who wrote a famous objection2. What Descartes meant to say: We may dream at any time, but we don’t know when. Descartes does not disprove existence of God to justify doubting everything, but supposes a ∙deceptive evil


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