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HIST 1311 1st Edition Lecture 5Current LectureA. Massachusetts Bay and Its Settlers 1. John Winthrop obtained a charter for a Puritan colony. 2. During the 1630s, a "Great Migration" of Puritans was fueled by religious tensions and economic distress in England. 3. Massachusetts developed into a society of small farming villages and small seaport towns. 4. Puritan ministers reinforced the ideal of a white paternal hierarchy within the family. B. Government in Puritan Massachusetts 1. The colony’s design was based on Puritan views of God’s law. a. There was no social equality. b. Political participation was restricted to saints (church members). c. Personal behavior was strictly regulated. d. Religious dissent was not tolerated. 2. Quakers who challenged this system could eventually be hanged. 3. Roger Williams preached freedom of religious belief. a. Banished for his views, he established Rhode Island, where church and state were kept separate. 4. Anne Hutchinson criticized the Massachusetts clergy. a. Her followers included not only women but also merchants and artisans. b. She was banished for her unorthodox belief in direct communication with God. 5. Some Puritans left Massachusetts voluntarily. a. Thomas Hooker and his followers as well as other Puritans established Connecticut. b. Others moved north to Maine and to the area that became the colony of New Hampshire. C. Indian Suppression 1. War broke out with the Pequots in 1636. a. It was part of a struggle between Massachusetts and the Connecticut Valley settlers over who would control Connecticut. b. The war ended with the destruction of the Pequots. 2. King Philip’s War began in 1675. a. Its roots lay in Puritan expansion onto Indian lands. These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.b. American Indian resistance ceased permanently in New England when the Indians lost this war. D. Change and Reaction in England and New England 1. Declining religious intensity was apparent by the 1660s. a. Fewer individuals qualified for church membership and therefore for political participation. b. The introduction of the Half-Way Covenant allowed the Puritans to maintain political control. 2. The English crown attempted to assert greater control. a. Charles II revoked the Massachusetts charter. b. James II established the Dominion of New England, with Sir Edmund Andros as governor. c. Massachusetts overthrew Andros when news of the Glorious Revolution reached the colony. 3. Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1691. a. The new charter granted by William and Mary ended Puritan political, religious, and social control. b. The Salem witchcraft episode occurred in the context of this great change. II. The Pluralism of the Middle Colonies A. From New Amsterdam to New York 1. A very diverse population settled in the colony, which remained small and un-prosperous. 2. England seized control of New Netherland from the Dutch. a. While the new government was liberal, the crown taxed the colonyheavily and maintained political control. b. By 1685, James I , now King of England, had lost interest in the colony.B. William Penn’s Holy Experiment 1. William Penn established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers. a. The crown granted him a charter because of his political loyalty, loans, and his father’s service to the king. 2. Penn envisioned a colony built on Quaker values. a. These included social equality, religious toleration, genuine political participation, and fair treatment for American Indians. 3. Non-Quaker immigrants moved the colony in other directions. a. They seized lands from the Indians. b. Quakers, whose religious principles included pacifism, left political life when western farmers demanded military action against the Indians.III. The Colonies of the Lower South A. The Carolina Colony 1. Eight proprietors received title to Carolina from the crown. a. They hoped to establish a society there dominated by great landowners, small farmers, and serfs. b. The headright system of Virginia and Maryland quickly replaced the original plan. 2. The Carolinas produced cash crops for export. 3. The southern part of Carolina became the royal colony of South Carolina in 1719. 4. The northern part of Carolina was settled by small farmers. a. Their economy centered on tobacco and naval stores. 5. Both Carolinas eventually became royal colonies. B. Georgia, the Last Colony 1. James Oglethorpe established Georgia as a place for imprisoned debtors to start their lives over. 2. The intention was to create a colony of small farmers; buying and selling land was prohibited, as was slave labor. a. Settlers challenged both these ideals. 3. Georgia became a royal colony in 1752 when Oglethorpe gave up on his project. Conclusion: These seventeenth century colonies had really little in common other than being loyal to a monarchy.The settlements along the Atlantic Cost were both feudal and visionary. Nonetheless, this diverse group of individuals would later band together to free themselves from a so called oppressor…But even after the struggle a rift would exist between the


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