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HIST 1311 1st Edition Lecture 3Current LectureLecture 2: The Race to Colonize the New WorldThe New Europe and the Atlantic World Spanish Expansion in America The papacy averted potential conflict between Spain and Portugal over which country had the right to explore and settle the Western Hemisphere. As a result of the line drawn by the pope and the Treaty of Tordesillas, most of the Western Hemisphere fell to Spain, with the exception of Brazil (to Portugal). This would be the beginningof Spain’s downfall as it forfeited all rights to Africa.Spain’s policy for its possessions in the Western Hemisphere included Christianization of the Native American Indians, expansion of Spain’s holdings, trade, and the discovery of gold and silver. (Spanish was more interested in gold and silver rather than Christianity) Columbus was unable to accomplish much in the way of advancing Spain’s policy. Hernan Cortés in 1521 expanded Spain’s dominion with the conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico. Juan Ponce de Léon expanded Spanish control to Florida in search of the Fountain of Youth. In 1528 Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca under Pánfilo de Narváez was part of an ill-fated expeditionthat began near present day Tampa Bay and ended up in Mexico City eight years later in 1536 after sailing along the coast Gulf of Mexico on a barge and walking across Texas with Estevanico (first African slave in Texas). He also writes a book about life in Texas in the 1500s. Between 1539 and 1542 Hernando de Soto explored from Florida to the Mississippi River looking for gold and glory in the name of God. De Soto and his men raped, pillaged, and murdered the Trans-Mississippi Indian population. He died of fever in 1542. (DeSoto discovers the Mississippi River) In 1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and Fray Marcos explored large sections of the south and south-central portions of the later United States in search of the Seven Cities of Cibloa. Thegolden city of Cibloa was Zuñi Indian city of adobe in Hawikúh. Gold and silver became the main goal of Spain’s conquistadors and royal officials. In South America Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire in Peru for its gold. Soon the Spanish turned to slavery in order to mine the silver and gold making Spain the richest nation in Europe. Philip II, Elizabeth I , and the race for World Domination.Spain’s new wealth and the conflict between Catholics and Protestants led to conflict with othernations, especially England, beginning in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. “The Virgin Queen” These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Philip II yearned to marry Elisabeth I in order to unify Spain and England making their union the most powerful in the world. Elizabeth I did not entertain the idea of marrying, not just Philip II, but any man.Elizabeth in turn supported the rebellious Protestants in the Netherlands against Spain. (She’s supporting the Protestants and getting them their freedom.) She authorized attacks by privateers(pirates) “Sea Dogs” like Englishman Francis Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and Dutchman Peit Hyen on Spanish possessions and shipping. Hyen sized a tremendous amount of Spanish silver being carried on the slow and cumbersome Spanish galleons.Spain’s King Philip II supported plots by Catholics inside England to overthrow Elizabeth. Mary Queen of Scots plotted to seize the English throne, for which she was executed and which led to greater tension between the two countries. When Elizabeth dies Queen Mary’s son James, will take Elizabeth’s spot. Elizabeth then embarked on a policy of establishing English colonies in the New World. In part, her intention was to deal with a shortage of farmland and to meet the needs of English merchants for greater opportunities. Reducing men who have no farm land so they go to England but they get no job because they were farmers so they turn to crime) English expansion there was also another way to oppose Spain. Sir Walter Raleigh established in 1584 the colony of Roanoke off the coast of Virginia. (was a suitor to Elizabeth also called the “romantic hero”) Also part of the lost colony that no one’s what happen to it till today. It followed an unsuccessful attempt by Sir Humphrey Gilbert to establish a colony off the coast of Newfoundland. Sir Walter chose a more southern location because it would block the Spanish in Florida. Gold and silver from the Western Hemisphere led to wealth but also to trouble. (they want more money and they get huge loans from the Dutch and the rich are getting richer and poor are getting poorer) The influx of money caused severe inflation throughout Europe. Increasing prices created social unrest, which in turn contributed to greater interest in colonization in the Western Hemisphere. As a result of this Philip II decided to invade England. The Spanish monarch decided on war with England as part of the battle against Protestantism and to block English colonization in the New World. In 1588, Philip attempted to invade England with the Armada, but met with disaster. At the hands of a nasty storm and a speedy English fleet.Though Spanish power would remain great, the Armada disaster effectively brought an end to Spain’s near monopoly over New World colonization.This paved the way for France and England to colonize the New World.European Empires in the Americas The Troubled Spanish Colonial Empire Spain’s New World Empire was in decline during the eighteenth century. It was too large to govern efficiently, and its officials were often corrupt.There were three Religious groups the Jesuits: who were the well-educated group in the Catholic Church. They dominated in Arizona, California, and Northern Mexico. Dominicans: known for their teaching, and dominate in Mexico City. Also they worked with the Royal family. Franciscans: poverty, helping the poor that’s what their known for. Dominate in Texas. Bureaucratic and Church interference in the labor system and taxes were continual problems. The Indian Frontier in New Spain Indian assistance had been crucial to Spain’s victories against the Aztecs and Incas. Now the Indian population was wary of the Europeans.New Spain’s Northern Frontiers In 1598 Juan de Oñate led an expedition that executed and enslaved Indians who resisted the Spanish incursion in present day New Mexico.Oñate’s


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