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UT Arlington HIST 1312 - Cold War

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HIST 1312 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Visions of Postwar Freedoma. Toward an American Centuryb. “The Way of Life of Freedom”c. The Road to SerfdomII. The American Dilemmaa. Patriotic Assimilationb. The Bracero Programc. Indians during the Ward. Asian-Americans in Wartimee. Japanese-American Internmentf. Blacks and the Warg. Blacks and the Military Servicesh. Birth of the Civil Rights Movement i. The Double-Vj. The War and Racek. An American Dilemmal. Black InternationalismIII. The End of the Wara. “The Most Terrible Weapon”b. The Dawn of the Atomic Agec. The Nature of the Ward. Planning the Postwar Worlde. Yalta and Bretton Woodsf. The United Nationsg. Peace, but Not HarmonyOutline of Current Lecture IV. Origins of the Cold Wara. The Two Powersb. The Roots of Containmentc. The Truman DoctrineThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used asa supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.d. The Marshall Plane. The Reconstruction of Japanf. The Berlin Blockade and NATOg. The Growing Communist Challengeh. The Korean Wari. Imperialism and Decolonization V. The Cold War and Idea of Freedoma. Freedom and Totalitarianismb. The Rise of Human Rightsc. Ambiguities of Human RightsCurrent LectureOrigins of the Cold War- The Two Powerso US emerged from WWII as by far the world’s greatest power US accounted for half the world’s manufacturing capacity It alone possessed the atomic bomb American leaders believed that the nation’s security depended on the security Europe and Asia, and that American prosperity required global economic reconstructiono The only power that in any way could rival the United States was the Soviet Union, whose armies not occupied most of eastern Europeo Soviet government remained determined to establish a sphere of influence in eastern Europe- The Roots of Containmento It seems all but inevitable that the two major powers to emerge from the war would come into conflicto Born of common foe rather than common long-term interests, values, or history, the wartime alliance between US and Soviet Union began to unravel almost from the day peace was declaredo The first confrontation of the Cold War took place in the Middle East At the end of WWII, Soviet troops occupied parts of northern Iran Soviet Union hoped to be granted access to the rich oil fields through pressuring the Iranian government However, under British and American pressure, Stalin withdrew his forces,but installed procommunist governments in Poland, Romania, and Bulgariao Long Telegram (early 1946) – American diplomat George Kennan advised the Truman administration that the Soviets could not be dealt with as a normal government Communist ideology drove them to try and expand their power throughout the world  He claimed only US could stop them His telegram laid the foundation for what became known as “containment” – US committed itself to preventing any further expansion of Soviet powero Winston Churchill declared that an “iron curtain” had descended across Europe, partitioning the free west from the communist east- The Truman Doctrineo Truman was convinced that Stalin could not be trusted and that the US had responsibility to provide leadership to the worldo Early in 1947 – Britain informed US that because its economy had been shatteredby WWII, it had no choice but to end military and financial aid to two crucial governments – Greece, a monarchy threatened by a communist-led rebellion andTurkey, from which the Soviets were demanding joint control of the straits linkingthe Black Sea and the Mediterranean; Britain asked US to fill their spoto Senate leader Arthur Vandenberg told Truman that the only way to get the publicand Congress on board was to “scare the hell” out of American people Truman said as the leader of the “free world,” the US must now shoulder the responsibility of supporting “freedom-loving peoples” wherever communism threatened them  Truman succeeded in getting Congress to support him, which began a long period of bipartisan support for the containment of communismo Truman’s speech set a precedent for American assistance to anticommunist regimes throughout the worldo Soon followed the creation of new national security bodies immune from democratic oversight Atomic Energy Commission, National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)- The Marshall Plano Secretary of State George C. Marshall in June 1947 pledged the US to contribute billions of dollars to finance the economic recovery of Europeo Two years after the war, the continent still lay in ruins with widespread food shortages and rampant inflation Economic chaos had strengthened the communist parties in France and Italyo Marshall Plan – offered a positive vision to go along with containment Marshall insisted that the policy was directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaoso The plan proved to be the most successful foreign aid programs in historyo US worked out with twenty three other Western nations the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which proposed to stimulate freer trade among the participants, creating an enormous market for American goods- The Reconstruction of Japano Under the guidance of “supreme commander” in Japan, General Douglas MacArthur, the country adopted a new, democratic constitutiono The new constitution gave women the right to vote for the first time in Japan’s historyo Article 9 of the new constitution said that Japan would renounce forever the policy of war and armed aggression and would maintain only a modest self-defense forceo By the 1950s, thanks to American economic assistance, the adoption of new technologies, and low spending on the military, Japan’s economic recovery was infull swing- The Berlin Blockade and NATOo The Cold War intensified and despite the Marshall Plan, increasingly took a militaristic turno At the end of WWII, each of the four victorious powers assumed control of a section of occupied Germany In June 1948, the US, Britain, and France introduced a separate currency in their zones, a prelude to the creation of a new West German government that would be aligned with them in the Cold War In response, The Soviets cut off road and rail traffic from the American, British, and French zoneso When Stalin lifted the blockade in


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