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UW-Madison JOURN 201 - History of Journalism

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JOURN 201 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Guest Speaker (Prof. Baughman)Outline of Current Lecture I. History of Journalism (continued)II. ReviewIII. Early American Support for PressIV. Modern Journalism V. The Progressive Era (1890s-1920s)Current LectureVI. History of Journalism (continued)a. Friday: Baughmanb. What was Baughman’s main argument for why we should understand the partisan press?i. Encouraged political involvementii. We seem to be engaged in a partisan period again, therefore, we need to understand the consequences it might haveVII. Reviewa. The Press & American Independence (review)i. The stamp act, 1765ii. “Taxation w/o representation”iii. Royal stampb. The press in somewhat oppositional to authority i. This act pushes printers toward revolutionary goals ii. Print ideas for revolution from Britainc. Press in the Revolution – 3 rolesi. Key Publications1. Common sense by Thomas Paine 1776a. Articulated the case for an independent republic 50,000 copies (more copies that most articles)ii. Connected the colonies1. Receiving the same information and could work togetheriii. Developed sense of solidarity, nationhood, sense of value of a press independent of government1. Such a large distance could be bridged gave them an identityThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.VIII. Early American Support for Pressa. Conception of citizen and democracyb. Constitution protectioni. Freedom of the pressc. Postal subsidiesi. Postal Service Act, 1795ii. 8700 people, 75% of all federal workers supported newspapersiii. Gigantic investmentd. Education and Literacyi. Major commitment, involved the foundersii. Land grantse. By early 1800’si. Growth of printing explodes after revolutionii. U.S. has more newspapers per capital than anyone anywhere elseiii. Highest literacy rates in the world1. Less than 10% “signatures illiteracy” by 1790 closing gap between men and womenIX. Modern Journalism a. Connecting some dotsi. From the founders to the partisan press ii. From the partisan press to nowb. Rise of the Partisan Pressi. The founders hated “faction” and partiesc. The party-press connectioni. (1820-1890)ii. It was not that the press turned partisan, rather parties and the press evolved together1. Spread information and allow people to form ideas and convince them of ideasd. Newspapers as party toolsi. Informing public of party platforms ii. Urging support of party and policiesiii. Turning out the vote (engagement)e. What reasons did Baughman give for the end of the partisan press?i. Commercial interest so they didn’t need money from political parties any more; writing more neutral would appeal to a wider audience; cold war caused parties to tone down their attacksX. The Progressive Era (1890s-1920s)a. Widespread social and political reforms i. In response to:1. Gilded age2. “Machine” politics3. Patronage4. Corruption b. Scientific Rationalityi. Sense that through scientific investigation and reason, trained practitioners can reach objective truthii. This involved:1. Scientists2. Bureaucrats 3. Journalistsc. Journalism in Progressive Erai. With increasing influence and power, a need for training, professionalism,accountabilityii. Establishment of:1. Norms and practices and official journalism


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