UT Arlington PSYC 3301 - Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 4 (13 pages)

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Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 4



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Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 4

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13
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Psyc 3301 - Psychology of Humans
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9 15 2014 CHAPTER 4 Self and Personality Personality Personality The specific pattern of traits and dispositions that make each of each unique as a person and different from others The consistent expression of our traits and dispositions across time and across situations in ways that make our behavior predictable and familiar to those who know us 1 9 15 2014 Major approaches to personality The trait approach the search for basic traits Allport cardinal traits central traits secondary traits Adult personality traits the Big Five The social learning approach The humanistic approach The cognitive approach Mischel s person variables Traits are hierarchically structured trait habit pattern specific surface behavior Conscientiousness Attention to detail Punctuality On time for appointments Never late to work Doesn t leave loose ends Orderliness Puts finishing touches on projects Computer files are organized into folders Closets at home are organized 2 9 15 2014 Major approaches to personality The trait approach the search for basic traits Allport cardinal traits central traits secondary traits Adult personality traits the Big Five The social learning approach The humanistic approach The cognitive approach Mischel s person variables Gordon Allport The father of personality psychology Cardinal traits Central traits Secondary traits 3 9 15 2014 Major approaches to personality The trait approach the search for basic traits Allport cardinal traits central traits secondary traits Adult personality traits the Big Five The social learning approach The humanistic approach The cognitive approach Mischel s person variables The Big Five personality factors Factor Characteristics Extraversion Sociable versus retiring fun loving versus sober affectionate versus reserved Agreeableness Softhearted versus ruthless trusting versus suspicious helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Well organized versus disorganized careful versus careless self disciplined versus weak willed Neuroticism Worried versus calm insecure versus secure selfpitying versus self satisfied Openness Imaginative versus down to earth preference for variety versus preference for routine independent versus conforming 4 9 15 2014 Historical identification of the Big Five personality dimensions Investigator s Factor I Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Fiske 1949 Confident selfexpression Social adaptability Conformity Emotional control Inquiring intellect Tupes Christal 1961 Surgency Agreeableness Dependability Emotional stability Culture Norman 1963 Surgency Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Culture Borgatta 1964 Assertiveness Likeability Task interest Emotionality Intelligence Digman Takemoto Chock 1981 Extraversion Friendly compliance Will to achieve Ego strength Anxiety Intellect Goldberg 1981 1989 Surgency Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Intellect McCrae Costa 1985 Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness to experience Conley 1985 Social extraversion Agreeableness Impulse control Neuroticism Intellectual interests Botwin Buss 1989 Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Dominant assured Intellectanceculture Peabody Goldberg 1989 Power Love Work Affect Intellect Major approaches to personality The trait approach the search for basic traits Allport cardinal traits central traits secondary traits Adult personality traits the Big Five The social learning approach The humanistic approach The cognitive approach Mischel s person variables 5 9 15 2014 Classical Pavlovian conditioning aka signal learning Classical conditioning begins with an existing stimulus response SR association Pavlov a Russian physiologist who was studying the process of digestion in dogs was astute enough to recognize the importance of the fact that the dogs learned to salivate even before they were given the food Understanding that there was an existing S R association between the food S and the dog s salivation he quickly perceived that there might also be a learned or conditioned association between cues associated with feeding S and the dog s salivation R Using the sound of either a bell or a tuning fork as his conditioned stimuli he found that he could indeed condition the response of salivation to the sound of a bell or a tuning fork Classical Pavlovian conditioning aka signal learning Once the new S R association is established it can be used to condition yet another S R association in a process called second order conditioning For example once the dog is reliably salivating to the sound of the bell the bell can be paired with a green light and soon the dog will salivate whenever the green light comes on Both first order and second order classical conditioning are subject to extinction 6 9 15 2014 Operant instrumental conditioning aka consequence learning Operant conditioning concerns the effect certain kinds of consequences have on the frequency of behavior A consequence that increases the frequency of a behavior is called a reinforcement A consequence that decreases the frequency of a behavior is called a punishment Whether a consequence is reinforcing or punishing varies according to the person and the situation There are two basic strategies for increasing the frequency of a behavior positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement There are two basic strategies for decreasing the frequency of a behavior extinction and punishment Operant conditioning procedures Procedure Purpose Application Positive reinforcement Increase behavior Give reward following behavior Negative reinforcement Increase behavior Remove aversive stimulus following behavior Extinction Decrease behavior Do not reward behavior Punishment Decrease behavior Give aversive stimulus following behavior or take away positive stimulus 7 9 15 2014 Major approaches to personality The trait approach the search for basic traits Allport cardinal traits central traits secondary traits Adult personality traits the Big Five The social learning approach The humanistic approach The cognitive approach Mischel s person variables Humanistic psychologists Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow and Fritz Perls 8 9 15 2014 Key elements of the humanistic approach The positive aspects of personality Personal responsibility and free will The here and now The phenomenology of the individual Personal growth Major approaches to personality The trait approach the search for basic traits Allport cardinal traits central traits secondary traits Adult


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