UT Arlington PSYC 3301 - Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 8 (10 pages)

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Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 8



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Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 8

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Pages:
10
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Psyc 3301 - Psychology of Humans
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10 15 2014 CHAPTER 8 Group Behavior and Influence What is a group A group is a collection of two or more individuals who interact together share common goals see themselves as a group group identification Group identification is important It gives us a sense of identity It can affect our motivation 1 10 15 2014 Motivation in groups social loafing Social loafing in the context of additive tasks When do we loaf the most task interest value choice knowledge of other group members size and gender composition of group cultural context Why do we loaf identifiability perception that one s contributions are not rewarded not needed and or are too costly Karau and Williams collective effort model Counteracting social loafing increased accountability task perceived as unique or challenging group pride external rewards social compensation Social loafing some ways to overcome it Factors that increase loafing Lack of identifiability No individual evaluation No individual or group standards of evaluation Task is easy boring or the same as others Individual contributions are not necessary No individual or group incentives Large group Unfamiliar group Factors that reduce loafing Individual identifiability Individual or group evaluation Individual or group standards of evaluation Task is difficult interesting or different from others Individual contributions are essential Individual or group incentives Small group Familiar group 2 10 15 2014 Motivation in groups social facilitation Social facilitation Arousal model if the dominant responses are correct performance is enhanced if the dominant responses are incorrect performance is impaired Simple versus complex tasks Well learned versus poorly learned tasks Evaluation model evaluation can create evaluation apprehension and also serve as source of distraction Distraction model the need to monitor other people and what they are doing Zajonc s cockroach experiment 3 10 15 2014 Brainstorming creativity in groups Osborn 1953 Four basic rules of brainstorming feel free to express all ideas generate as many as possible build on other people s ideas and don t criticize them Factors that inhibit brainstorming using the nominal group as a control Evaluative concern Free riding social loafing Blocking production blocking Downward social comparison Illusion of group productivity 4 10 15 2014 Brainstorming creativity in groups Improving group brainstorming Prior practice with brainstorming Nominal group technique Brainwriting Synectics divergent thinking spectrum policy fantasy metaphors analogies etc Electronic brainstorming stages of idea generation organization ranking and ideas for implementation Use of small groups or pairs Use of certain personality types low social anxiety Better brainstorming some techniques First practice with group brainstorming Alternate individual and group brainstorming Use spectrum policy look at all sides of the issue Use small groups or pairs Create diverse groups with a variety of perspectives talents and knowledge bases Give the groups some goals for which to aim Use group brainstorming with less socially anxious individuals Use electronic brainstorming or brainwriting 5 10 15 2014 Group decision making Major pitfalls Disorganization nonoptimal approach Strength in numbers effect the decision tends to go in the direction of the largest subgroup with a consensus Group polarization Affected by normative and informational influence Momentum toward the already favored position Extremist versus mixed groups Self selection bias favoring homogeneous groups Group decision making Information biases in groups Sampling bias Instruct members to mention only items that have not already been shared homogeneity of the group Have groups rank the various alternatives rather than simply choosing the apparently best one Inform the group about the unique areas of expertise of particular group members Directive versus participative group leaders Repeating shared knowledge more than unshared knowledge during the group discussion the common knowledge effect 6 10 15 2014 Counteracting the common knowledge effect and the sampling bias Force group members to mention only unique information Rank alternatives Assign expertise Include confident experts Include directive leaders pros and cons 7 10 15 2014 Group decision making Groupthink defective decision making in groups Concurrence seeking group cohesiveness insularity lack of checks pre determined outcome pressure for decision Symptoms of groupthink direct pressure pressure to uniformity self censorship mindguards illusion of unanimity misperception rationalization Defective decision making poor information search incomplete survey of alternatives and objectives information processed in a biased fashion failure to reappraise no contingency plan s The phenomenon of groupthink 8 10 15 2014 Groupthink some major symptoms Symptoms of Groupthink Illusion of invulnerability Collective rationalization Belief in the morality of the group Stereotyping of outgroups Direct pressure on dissenters Self censorship Illusion of unanimity Mindguards Symptoms of defective decision making Incomplete survey of alternatives Incomplete survey of objectives Failure to examine the risks of the favored alternative Poor information search Selective bias in processing available information Failure to reassess alternatives Failure to work out contingency plans Group decision making Groupthink defective decision making in groups Avoiding groupthink rules for good decision making Table 8 5 Teamwork and groupthink problems of self management Table 8 6 Develop effective decision making norms and practices Increase interaction with new or outside members Train self leadership skills Select team members with a desire for independence 9 10 15 2014 Rules for good decision making Set a good decision making goal Organize the procedures for decision making Do a systematic search for the information held by group members Make group members accountable for sharing the information needed to make a good decision Have a diversity of views and expertise represented in the group Use second chance meetings to re evaluate the decision 10


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