UT Arlington PSYC 3301 - Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 3 (17 pages)

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Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 3



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Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 3

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Pages:
17
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Psyc 3301 - Psychology of Humans
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9 15 2014 CHAPTER 3 Perceiving Other Persons and the World Around Us Perceiving the physical world Perception is organized Gestalt principles of perceptual organization Perception is selective focus of attention and figure ground contrasts Internal factors affecting perception motives needs values past experience External factors affecting perception perceptual salience is affected by intensity color size motion and novelty 1 9 15 2014 Similarity principle color Similarity principle shape 2 9 15 2014 Similarity principle size Proximity principle 3 9 15 2014 Continuity principle the Big Dipper Common fate principle 4 9 15 2014 Closure principle Figure ground contrast 5 9 15 2014 Illusory movement Ambiguous figure 6 9 15 2014 Ambiguous figure 7 9 15 2014 Ambiguous figure figure ground contrast and closure Ambiguous figure figure ground contrast and closure 8 9 15 2014 Ambiguous picture 9 9 15 2014 Impossible figure tuning fork 10 9 15 2014 Impossible figure elephant Perceiving the physical world Perception is organized Gestalt principles of perceptual organization Perception is selective focus of attention and figure ground contrasts Internal factors affecting perception motives needs values past experience External factors affecting perception perceptual salience is affected by intensity color size motion and novelty 11 9 15 2014 Social cognition understanding people Social perception and attention standing out from the crowd social salience unexpected events inconsistent information Salience influences causal attribution social inference Salience influences the extremity of evaluations and emotional reactions Salience influences memory for the person or event Person memory Influenced by the goals of impression formation empathy self reference and expectancy of future interaction Ironically anticipated interaction works better than actual interaction does Social cognition processes Attention memory and inference ATTENTION MEMORY INFERENCE Increased salience of the other person 12 9 15 2014 Social cognition understanding people Social perception and attention standing out from the crowd social salience unexpected events inconsistent information Salience influences causal attribution social inference Salience influences extremity of evaluations and emotional reactions Salience influences memory for the person or event Person memory Influenced by the goals of impression formation empathy self reference and expectancy of future interaction Ironically anticipated interaction works better than actual interaction does Social cognition understanding people Inference drawing conclusions from social information Representativeness heuristic Illusory correlation Attribution understanding the causes of others behavior Consistency consensus and distinctiveness information Attribution to an internal cause an external cause or a unique circumstance prototypical data patterns 13 9 15 2014 Calvin became visibly upset when the new boss criticized him High consensus high distinctiveness high consistency This is a boss from hell external attribution Low consensus low distinctiveness high consistency Calvin is easily upset internal attribution Low consensus low distinctiveness low consistency Calvin is feeling particularly vulnerable today circumstance attribution unique Lee filled out the sales contract incorrectly High consensus high distinctiveness high consistency The sales contract is complicated and confusing external attribution Low consensus low distinctiveness high consistency Lee doesn t know how to do contracts internal attribution Low consensus low distinctiveness low consistency Lee forgot and left her glasses home today attribution unique circumstance 14 9 15 2014 Social cognition understanding people Causal attribution some implications for work settings Internal versus external causal locus affects judgments of personal responsibility and praise versus blame Stable versus unstable causal influence affects judgments of what the outcome s will be in the future Stable Unstable Internal External Ability lack of ability Task ease Task difficulty Effort Lack of effort Good bad luck 15 9 15 2014 When social perception fails common errors in our efforts to understand others Overestimating the role of internal causes the fundamental attribution error The self serving bias taking credit for success avoiding blame for failure Self enhancement Self protection 16 9 15 2014 Social perception its role in job interviews and performance appraisals The Halo Effect how overall impressions shape judgments Social perception and the job interview The relative impact of positive versus negative information negative information counts more Comparisons against other people also play a role Visual information appearance makes a difference Nonverbal cues can have different effects depending on the context Social perception and performance appraisal the role of evaluators attributions about one s performance Impression management managing the impressions other people have of us Tactics of self presentation Enhancement strategies Entitlement strategies Ingratiation strategies Excuses Excessive use of these strategies can backfire 17


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