ISU SOA 106 - Final Exam Study Guide (35 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


A copy of all of our notes for the semester.

Study Guide
Illinois State University
Soa 106 - Introduction to Sociology
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SOA 106 1st Edition FInal Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 38 The final is half cummulative and half unit 3 Lecture 1 August 22 Sociology is the systematic study of human society and social behavior from large scale institutions and mass culture to small groups and individual interactions Basic Principles of Sociology 1 Society creates reality 2 It is possible to study society scientifically 3 Cultures differ across time and space 4 Individuals and society are inseparable 5 Institutions are inherently conservative 6 Social life is dynamic The Sociological Imagination the ability to connect individuals lives to historical forces that shape them coined by C Wright Mills the sociological imagination is the intersection of biography and history Lecture 2 August 25 Sociology as a discipline is the product of two dramatic social changes Englightenment and Industrial Revolution Enlightenment 18th C Age of Reason emergence of political liberty political revolutions rise of science and rational thought Industrial Revolution 19th C Shift from Agrarian to Industrial economy urbanization extremes of wealth and poverty Emile Durkheim 1858 1917 Key Problem understanding the social forces that produce order and disorder Key Concepts social facts observable division of labor anomie Key Works The Division of Labor in Society 1893 Suicide 1897 Believed social facts were the essence of sociological works Division of Labor and Society Mechanical Solidarity holds traditional societies together simple societies built on sameness unspecialized division of labor EX Amish Community Organic Solidarity high level of specialization high division of labor Division of labor makes people dependent on one another creates solidarity break this down chaos Suicide Importance of social integration put sociology on the map holdings still hold true Discovers role of social integration not concerned with individual suicide concerned with rates across countries Why would some societies have higher lower rates than others rich people have higher suicide rates poor people are firmly integrated into their communities depend on each other less integrated higher suicide rates single people have higher suicide rates protestants have higher rates than catholics Social roots of personal acts value of scientific sociological analysis Lecture 3 August 27 Karl Marx 1818 1883 Key Problem understanding how the economic system affects society and its people Key Concepts historical materialism class struggle surplus value false consciousness Key Works The Communist Manifesto 1848 Capitol Vol 1 4 Historical Materialism if you want to understand society you must understand its economic arrangements Marx s Analysis of Capitalism Key Features private property any property that can be used for proactive purposes profit socialism society owns the property capitalisms an individuals owns the property predicted that private property would reach inhuman levels People would make private property out of everything and we have Surplus Value root cause of class conflict controlled by owner in capitalism money is not given back to the workers you always produce more value than you are paid if you were paid your value there would be no surplus to invest all of society is infused from this Class Conflict There has never been a communist revolution Marx thought there would be Bourgeoisie capitalist class Proletariat working class There is no middle class Globalization knocks down our wages Marx thought people would overthrow capitalism and private property in order to do that people would have had to overcome false consciousness in order to overthrow False Consciousness when workers start to identify with the capitalist Lecture 4 August 29 Max Weber 1864 1920 Key problems Effects of rationality on modern society response to Marx s economic emphasis Key concepts Inconvient facts rationalization bureaucracy Key works Economy and Society Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Work seen as a response to Marx s work agreed with Marx s idea of capitalism Thought bureaucracy was an example of a rational society bureaucracy focused on rules laws The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Cultural and religious roots of modern capitalism Salvations is a calling viewed work as a calling A calling means that it serves a higher purpose you worshiped God by working hard at your job Weber thought it served a double purpose if you are doing well at work you are among the chosen who go to heaven Modern capitalism would not have been created without religion Weber thought that the religion aspect would fade away and it has The Iron Cage structural problem you cannot opt out of doing work because someone else will be willing to work harder than you EX If you don t get a college education you end up making 8 25 the rest of your life What is Science Science Inquiry a logical system that derives knowledge from direct systematic observation and empirical evidence Sociology involves scientific inquiry of the social world collecting and analyzing systematically gathered empirical data Distinguishing Sociology From Journalism telling a story about society but not held to the same level as sociologists Personal opinion and common sense sociology is a science their opinions are backed up by facts and data Unscientific surveys students make decisions based on flawed data Rate my Professor this bad data is then recycled and repackaged by other reputable news sources to draw erroneous conclusions EX Colleges with the worst professors Opinion vs Science What is the Difference Opinions everyone has one but they re not all equally valid Science opinions are supported by systematically gathered empirical evidence Lecture 5 September 3 The Social Construct of Reality If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences W I Thomas Sociologist believe reality is a social construct The social construct of reality the process through which facts knowledge and truth are discovered made known reaffirmed and altered by the members of society Micro level dimensions of reality construction social interactions and performances Macro level dimensions of reality construction institutions religion politics and culture Macro Level Erving Goffman The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 1959 Reality construction is a shared performance Goffman Reality is constructed and reproduced through everyday interaction rituals ex greetings Dramaturgical theory front stage behaviors

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