UNT RTVF 1310 - Chapter 8 2014 (6 pages)

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Chapter 8 2014



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Chapter 8 2014

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Pages:
6
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Rtvf 1310 - Persp on Brdcst Tech
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Chapter 8 Radio Programming Radio Regulation and Format Design Radio stations can choose their own programming Section 326 Communications Act gives broadcasters freedom from censorship American Radio has format freedom Task provide attractive programming to meet informational and entertainment needs of audience Matrix of Radio Programming Local Programming original programming produced by radio station Prerecorded or Syndicated Programming obtained from a commercial supplier outside the station News and Talk Network Programming obtained from radio nets such as ABC CBS or National Public Radio Premiere Radio Networks etc Networks Feature Program Syndication Networks Feature Program Syndication Types of Radio Programming Music most popular form of radio programming Prerecorded or syndicated 9 out of 10 stations have music as mainstay News Talk Local shows includes news sports weather traffic Popular talk personalities have syndicated programs that a distributed by networks via satellite Modes of Radio Production Local live Production station employs its own announcers and newscasters Live assist Production station uses syndicated programming service but retains local announcers Semiautomation station uses syndicated producer for majority of programming Turnkey automation station is fully automated Semi Turnkey Automation Modes of Radio Production Local live Production station employs its own announcers and newscasters Live assist Production station uses syndicated programming service but retains local announcers Semiautomation station uses syndicated producer for majority of programming Turnkey automation station is fully automated Voice tracking computer automation makes it possible to program more than one station with same personnel Voice Tracking Creating the Radio Format Format the overall sound and image of the radio station Includes station s approach to talk music promotion ads community relations personalities etc Keys to successful format To identify and serve a predetermined set of listeners To serve those listeners better than the competition To reward listeners both on and off the air make them consistent customers for the products and services advertised on the station Developing the Music Format The Format Hole Programming Strategies Do a better job at a specific format than the competition Develop a niche that will deliver a large enough audience to attract advertising revenue to the station Internal Factors Station ownership dial location power technical facilities management philosophy External Factors Geography population characteristics program weaknesses other stations Audience Analysis Goal of radio programming attract and maintain an audience Target Audience the primary group sought by the station is defined by Demographics age education racial ethnic background sex Psychographics attitudes beliefs and lifestyles Listener Demographics Radio has phenomenal reach Reaches 90 Persons 12 Just under half of all 12 listen between 6 and 10 A M Between 6 A M and 6 P M radio reaches more people than TV cable newspapers magazines and online services Demographic categories age breakouts e g 18 24 18 34 18 49 Ideal Target Group women mid 30s Listener Psychographics Advertisers and programmers want this type of information measures qualitative characteristics values and lifestyles of listeners Attempts to understand Attitudes Beliefs Leisure pursuits Political interests Radio Dayparts Morning Drive 6 10 A M most important time Evening Drive 3 7 P M second most important time Daytime 10 A M 3 P M about one in five people listen Evening and late night after 7 P M ratings drop as people watch TV Weekend radio Saturday late morning and early afternoon are most important Radio Listening Throughout the Day The Hot Clock The format wheel looks like the face of a clock Used to plan and execute the station s sound Shows where music commercials news occur within the program schedule Stations may use different clocks for different dayparts Chart Playlist Rotation of Music is a Main Purpose of the Hot Clock Radio Programming Terminology Three main types of information on hot clock Commercial time positions Promotional position Programming music and news talk segments Clutter when too many commercials have been placed on the format most stations program between 8 and 18 minutes of commercials per hour Radio Programming Terminology Spot sets Stop sets the commercial and promotional segments of the hot clock Subcategories of musical segments Current hits given most airplay Recurrent recent hits still popular Gold oldies Segue overlap one program element with another Sweep musical set Teaser promote upcoming program element T T Time Temp Liner Artists and song Promo Promotional announcement Front sell Back sell listing of what will has played Format Evaluation Playlist stations publish list of songs played on specific formats used by major record labels to gauge what gets airplay Tip Sheets Billboard Radio and Records iTunes Call ins requests to station are logged in Call outs hooks are played over the phone Auditorium tests 200 song hooks test with large group Focus group study in depth interviews about musical preferences The Payola Issue A problem from the early days Murray the K Allen Freed Dick Clark Payola taking something of value in exchange for on air presentation promotion Sec 508 of the CA Addresses disclosure to station management Sec 317 of the CA Addresses sponsorship ID requirements Record Company Settlements Funds to be distributed to not for profit entities and earmarked for music education programs Sony BMG 10 million Warner 5 million Vivendi Universal Music Group 12 million EMI 3 75 million FCC April 13 2007 New s Release BROADCASTERS PAY 12 5 MILLION TO RESOLVE POSSIBLE PAYOLA VIOLATIONS In addition the broadcasters CBS Radio Citadel Clear Channel and Entercom agree to implement certain business reforms and compliance measures under Consent Decrees signed by each Prohibition on company stations and employees exchanging airplay for cash or other items of value except under specified conditions Limits on gifts concert tickets and other valuable items from record labels to company stations or employees Appointment of Compliance Officers and market level Compliance Contacts responsible for monitoring and reporting company performance under the Consent Decrees Regular training of programming personnel on payola restrictions News Talk and Sports Formatting Talk formats are


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