UNT RTVF 1310 - Chapter 12 - 1310 Outline (14 pages)

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Chapter 12 - 1310 Outline



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Chapter 12 - 1310 Outline

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Pages:
14
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Rtvf 1310 - Persp on Brdcst Tech
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Chapter 12 Ratings and Audience Feedback History of Audience Measurement Audience research first appeared in 1920s station owners became curious about the size of the audience Data collection Listeners directed to drop a post card reporting if they heard a particular program or if a signal was clear Advertiser demands Need accurate estimates of audience size Cooperative Analysis of Broadcasting CAB founded 1930 by advertisers History of Audience Measurement Telephone Recall Method Placing calls at different times during the day to homes selected at random from phone directories used by C A B until 1946 Telephone Coincidental Method Respondents asked if they were listening to radio at the time of the call if answer was yes asked to name the program station better method introduced by C E Hooper Co Audimeter A mechanical device which collected data from a random sampling of radios consisted of a stylus that made a scratch on a roll of paper tape synchronized with the radio s tuning dial History of Audience Measurement Audimeter Moves to TV in 1950s Nielsen data formed basis for Nielsen Television Index NTI reported on network programs Nielsen Station Index NSI reported on local TV markets American Research Bureau later called Arbitron Uses a diary to record data from a sampling of viewers 1949 Diary provides demographic information History of Audience Measurement Nielsen abandons radio ratings in 1963 Arbitron uses diary method to measure local market radio mid 1960s 1980s Nielsen alone provided network TV ratings Arbitron competed in the area of local TV market measurement exited TV ratings business 1993 Storage Instantaneous Audimeter SIA Sends info directly from the audimeter through phone lines to Nielsen s computers Possible to publish next day ratings 1960s History of Audience Measurement Peoplemeter AGB Television Research Developed to compete with Nielsen hand held keypad allowed different viewers to record the shows watched Advantages Unaffected by poor memories of people Data is sent electronically not via mail Records data about exactly who is watching what Disadvantages Expensive to install and maintain Hard to measure children s viewing Only measures at home viewing Audience Research History of Audience Measurement For many years Nielsen Dominant in television ratings Arbitron Dominant in local market radio ratings In 2001 acquired RADAR radio s all dimension audience research Rates network radio listening Com Score Media Matrix report and Nielsen NetRatings Inc both collect Internet data Audience sampling methods Probability Laws of chance bear out that a small sample selected at random random selection will yield a representative sample Sample frame A universe from which survey subjects are drawn updated phone directory census tracts Audience sampling methods Random digit dialing used to include new unlisted phone numbers when phone survey is used Multistage area probability sampling used to ensure the number of sample members chosen from each geographic region will be proportional to the total population of each area Problems with Sampling Point of diminishing returns The point at which increasing the sample size yields such a small increase in reliability that the additional cost is not worth it Sampling error errors which cannot be avoided relating to the laws of probability Nonsampling error bias injected by survey taker simple mistakes misleading questionnaires Fraud Station personnel and their families can not participate Problems Cont Advertisers in local markets very often make decisions based on very narrow margins The difference in a 2 or 3 percent rating can be the difference between a buy and a no buy Problem This is based on a relatively small sample Sometimes as little as 500 Sampling error can be 2 3 percent Problems Cont Response rate limits in tab sample usable sample Some segments of population under represented Weighting Stratified Sampling Additional notes on audience measurement for Television Radio Internet Nielsen measures network local and cable television audiences Nielsen Station Index NSI Local market audience ratings Covers all 210 television markets Nielsen Television Index NTI Network audience ratings Currently report on 20 000 national People Metered homes approx 45 000 people LA Times August 2012 Other reports National and local Hispanic Index NHSI NHTI Nielsen Syndicated Services details national ratings for syndicated programs Many other custom reports by request of clients Data Collection NTI People Meters Provide set tuning with demographic information for national samples Data Collection NSI SIA s and diaries in small to mid sized markets Local people meters LPM STI s measure only what channel is being used not demographic information age gender diaries report audience composition Latest approach to employ new technologies and methods to expand sample locally Spurred to some degree from new competition from Rentrak an established media measurement company that also tracks movie box office receipts and home video Survey Periods or Sweeps Nielsen Station Index Viewers in Profile NSI VIP book February May July November 4 week period each month of survey period Determining Ratings San Antonio DMA Determining Ratings Nielsen TV Metro DMA NSI area Ratings Shares HUTS Rating of TV HHs watching a specific channel Total TV HHs Expressed as a percentage Total TV HHs represents TOTAL TV HHs in market whether the TV is on or not Ratings Shares HUTS Share of TV HHs watching a specific channel Homes Using TV HUT Expressed as a percentage of TV HHs tuned to a specific channel of all TV homes using their TV Rating and Share Calculations SAMPLE SIZE 3 000 Diaries DMA 5 Millions Homes Data from 6 00 6 15p m time period KAAA TV 200 households KBBB TV 425 households WXXX TV 375 households Independents cable and public TV 475 households What is the rating for KAAA 200 divided by 3 000 6 7 What is the share for WXXX How many households were tuned to KAAA Use the previously calculated rating for KAAA to estimate the number of households How many households were tuned to KBBB 425 divided by 3 000 14 2 Calculations Cont 14 2 percent of 5 million 708 500 Changes COMMERICAL MINUTE RATINGS IN Effective May 31 2007 Nielsen provides average commercial minute ratings WHY Because of DVR use Advertisers want to know whether or not viewers are seeing their commercials In January 2007 Nielsen began measuring viewing of college students Extended Home measurement


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