UNT RTVF 1310 - Chapter 13 - 1310 Outline 2014 (7 pages)

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Chapter 13 - 1310 Outline 2014



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Chapter 13 - 1310 Outline 2014

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Pages:
7
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Rtvf 1310 - Persp on Brdcst Tech
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Chapter 13 Effects Studying the Effects of the Electronic Media Scientific Methods Experimental methods in controlled laboratory experiments natural field conditions Cause and effect conclusions possible Not as controlled Outside influences Survey methods Difficult if not impossible to show cause and effect only correlations Subjects sampled once Longitudinal different samples over a continuing period of time Panel study same sample studied over period of time Studying the Effects of the Electronic Media Survey method cont Content analysis systematic method for analyzing and classifying communication content Meta analysis looks at a number of existing studies about a similar topic and summarizes the main findings using statistical procedures that highlight what results are all about Cannot be used to draw a conclusion without an audience study Critics complain that meta analysis can oversimplify complex patterns of results Theories of Media Effects Hypodermic Needle Theory shooting beliefs into people s minds Critics claim theory is too simplistic Limited Effects Theory Media does not have direct influence on audience Influence over attitude change is filtered by several factors Two Step Flow Theory Klapper s Law of Minimal Effects Opinion Leaders Critics claim Klapper s research was done primarily before TV began dominate media Klapper s Minimal Effects Theory Communication does not serve as a necessary and sufficient cause of audience effects but rather functions among and through a nexus of mediating factors and influences Theories of Media Effects Selective Exposure Congruence Theory Selective Perception Boomerang Effect Agenda setting Specific Effects Theory Media competes with or complements Under certain circumstances specific media can influence certain members of the audience other sources of influence such as friends family and teachers Video Violence Video Violence History Concern about impact of media violence Video violence Urban violence of 1960s U S Surgeon General s Office studies surfaced with 1930s gangster films became issue in 1950s sparked new interest 1982 update reinforces conclusions about link with aggressive behavior 1992 TV networks under increased pressure to reduce violence Issue embedded with subject of the V Chip and 1996 Telecommunications Act Video Violence Research Evidence Catharsis Theory watching would reduce viewers aggressiveness Stimulation Theory watching prompts aggression Experiment Study results tend to support stimulation theory individuals show increase in levels of aggression after viewing violence on TV Longitudinal survey studies in U S and Europe have similar results viewing TV violence causes viewer aggression Field experiments less consistent results than lab experiments but still tend toward support of stimulation theory Simplified Diagram for Catharsis vs Stimulation Experiment Survey Design Examining Effects of TV Violence Video and Violence Research findings Consensus of findings TV violence is a cause of aggressive tendencies in viewers Impact of TV is affected by many other factors such as age sex family interaction While there are apparently effects of TV violence on aggression tends to be small Videogame Violence Notes 70 percent of all US households have a game console or handheld game device Lab experiments show some short term effect in the increase of violent behavior after video game sessions Other studies have indicated at least some apparent limited affect on aggressive behavior Videogame Violence First person shooter new breed of ultra violent games in early 1990s e g Doom Games popular with boys ages 8 to 13 Official interest raised after Columbine tragedy Videogame Violence No long term longitudinal studies on effects of playing violent games Video computer games have small effect on subsequent aggression effect smaller than TV Effects of game play are Research still at a formative level same on young and old Violence against humans seems to produce stronger effects than sports related violence Perceptions of Reality Cultivation Theory the more one is exposed to TV Additional studies say other factors age sex race education may have an impact the more likely that person s construction of social reality will reflect TV and less of reality Mainstreaming heavy viewing will result in similar attitudes among subgroups Resonance double dose from TV and reality heavy TV viewers in crime areas Long term cumulative exposure to TV cultivates a small but significant acceptance of ideas and perceptions that are similar to the world portrayed on TV A Mean and Scary World Perceptions of Reality Cultivation Studies Summary Motivation for viewing low involvement viewing may be more potent than planned viewing Amount of experience with the topic Resonance not withstanding cultivation works best when audience has only indirect contact with the topic in question Perceived realism of the content cultivation may be enhanced when viewer perceives the content to be realistic Stereotyping Gender Stereotyping Racial Stereotypes Italians generally depicted as Mafia Asians as invaders or Karate experts Hispanics and African Americans comics or gang members Native Americans as savages victims cowards medicine men People from the Middle East as terrorists or oil sheks Although Latinos accounted for 9 percent of the U S population a Center for Media and Public Affairs study said they comprised 1 percent of the all characters portrayed in the 1992 93 television season In comparison African Americans who represent 12 percent of the population accounted for 17 percent of all TV characters The Latino Media Gap A Report on the State of Latinos in U S Media June 2014 Latino talent in top movie and television programming is extremely limited less than two percent and not increasing at a rate near the rise of the U S Latino population Stereotypes Have a negative effect because they tend to reinforce society s negative image of certain classes of people May tend to cause an under representation of some groups on television Are used because of time constraints They provide shortcuts to communicate certain facts about characters which are used to move the story along They are deliberately over simplified to fit preconceived images Not always obvious or agreed upon National Latino Media Council has issued report cards periodically NAACP has issued reports such as Out of Focus Out of Sync Notes on Broadcasting and Politics Notes on Broadcasting and


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