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UNT RTVF 1310 - Chapter 2 Outline(1)

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• Chapter 2 • History of Cable, Home Video, and the Internet• The Story of Cable TV• Cable started in rural towns such as Astoria, Oregon and Lansford, Pennsylvania• Community Antenna TV literally was a sharing of a common antenna system to pick up television signals• By 1952, about 70 cable systems were serving 15,000 homes in the U.S.• EMERGENCE OF CABLE TV• Boosters• Translators• CATV– First seen by broadcasters as a positive– Later as unfair competition• CATV– First seen by broadcasters as a positive– Later as unfair competition• PAY TV EXPERIMENTS• Phonevision• Skiatron• Telemeter• Bartlesville, OK Experiment• Cable Growth -- Technical and Regulatory• Early on the FCC deemed cable was an ancillary service to broadcast television• In 1972, the FCC established more formal rules– Local communities, states and the FCC were to regulate cable– New systems would have a minimum of 20 channels– There would be carriage of all local stations (must carry)– There would be regulations on importing distant signals– Pay cable services would be approved– Imposed access channel requirements• Cable Growth -- Technical and Regulatory– 1972 Open Skies Policy• Anyone with the means could launch a domsat.• Satellite distribution of signals made it possible to distribute programming to localcable franchises– In 1975, HBO became the first pay service distributed via satellite• Cable Growth -- Technical and Regulatory (Cont.)• 1977 - Appeals court rules there is no justificationfor treating cable as ancillary service– Pendulum swings back toward hands-off• 1979 FCC action removing licensing requirements for TVRO antennas.• The Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 – reduced FCC control over cable– made the local community the major force in cable regulation– Large companies rushed to get local franchise rights to build cable systems• Cable Growth - continued• Between 1975 to 1987– The number of cable systems tripled– Percentage of homes with cable increased from 14% to 50% • By 1988, the cable industry was dominated by large multiple-system operators (MSOs)• Today about 61% of all TV homes subscribe to cable (2007)• Annual revenue from subscribers amounted to $48 billion in 2000• Cable Growth -- Technical and Regulatory (Cont.)• 1992 Cable Television Consumer Protection & Competition Act (imposed more regulation)– “must carry” reinstated (upheld by U.S. Supreme Court, 1997; Different versions ruled unconstitutional in 1985and 1987) with retransmission consent route option• Cash Payments• Other Benefits (second channel, guaranteed channel position, etc.)• Cable Growth -- Technical and Regulatory (Cont.)• Telecommunication Act of 1996– Authorized telephone companies to provide cable services• Multi-channel Stats• Cable Penetration – 61.3 percent nationally (DFW only 51.5 percent)• DBS Penetration – 25.2 percent nationally (48.5 percent; DFW)• Alternatives to Cable• TVRO (satellite television receive-only earth stations) popular option for people who could not get cable. – By 1990, three million consumers had these large dishes• DBS took the nation by storm in the mid-1990s – Today there are more than 20 million subscribers• Wireless Cable (MMDS - multichannel, multipoint distribution systems) uses microwave technology to distribute television programming. – Today there are about 1 million subscribers• Home Video• Broadcast video tape recorders debuted in 1956. – They were quickly adopted by the television networks• SONY introduced the Betamax VCR in 1975. – In 1984, the Supreme Court ruled that home taping did not violate copyright law– In 1978, 175,000 VCRs were in use in the U.S.• Today about 95 million households own aVCR (about 90% penetration)• DVDs and DVRs• DVDs fast overtaking home VCRs– In 2001 about 18 million American homes had a DVD– In 2006, about 60 million American homes had a DVD• Now, Blue-Ray is on the scene• Digital Video Recorders (DVRs)– hard disk drive systems• The Video Store• In the late 1970s, the Video Shack chain opened• Video rental stores sprung up across America– By 1984, there were about 20,000 specialty video rental shops• Industry concentration has created several large rental chains – Blockbuster Video became the market leader• Long term, video rental faces competitionfrom pay-per-view services on cable and DBS• The Internet• The Internet refers to the global interconnection of computer networks using common communication protocols• The World Wide Web is one of several services available on the Internet• Gopher, FTP and e-mail are other services available to Internet users• A whimsical view:It is written…• In the beginning there was LAN. And the Internet was without form, and void; and randomness was upon the face of computing. And the Spirit of connectivity moved upon the face of the computers. And the Department ofDefense said, Let there be data: and there was data. And the systems saw the data, and that it was good: and the systems divided the data from the randomness. And systems called the data Information, and the new randomness they later called the Information Super Highway. “In 1969, the U.S. government created ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency)*, connecting four western universities and allowing researchers to use the mainframes of any of the networked institutions. New connections were soon added to the network, bringing the number of "nodes" upto 23 in 1971, 111 in 1977, and up to almost 4 million in 1994. As the size of the network grew so did its capabilities: In its first 25 years, the Internet added features such as file transfer,email, Usenet news, and eventually HTML. Now, new developments come to the Net one right after the other. It is this explosive growth in recent years that has captured the imagination of computer users the world over.”*Now Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency• The Birth of the Internet• Cold war struggles between the U.S. andthe former Soviet Union speeds development of the Internet• The SAGE Project (early warning radar system) provides the U.S. with advancedwarning against a missile attack• Computer and communication technology – modem and video display terminal were outgrowths of the SAGE project• Would There Be a Dial Tone?• Paul Baran and Donald Davies, working independently,


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