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The process of social typing that transforms an offender's identity from a doer of evil to an evil person
Dramatization of Evil
Removing juveniles from adult jails and placing them in community-based programs to avoid the stigma attached to these facilities
Deviance that results in no social action, secret deviance
Primary Deviance
Deviance that the labeling process creates, Deviance that occurs after initial deviant act is identified, labeled negatively, & person internalizes the negative label
Secondary deviance
A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as delinquency
Problem Behavior Syndrome
Kids, who get into minor scrapes as youths but whose misbehavior ends when they enter adulthood
Adolescent Limited-Offenders
Delinquents who begin their offending career at a very early age and continue to offend well into adulthood
Life-Course Persisters
A stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition, such as defective intelligence or impulsive personality, that makes some people delinquency-prone over the life course
Latent Trait
They explain the onset and continuation of delinquency, Examples: RTC, RAT, SDT, DAT, SLT, SBT, GST....SLT, Labeling Theory
Traditional Theories
Age-graded Risk Factor/Protective Factor that explain onset, continuation, & desistance of delinquent/criminal careers, they discuss the onset, continuation, and end
Developmental Theories
Seeds of criminal behavior are planted early in life, behavior is dynamic and people change, they focus on the relationship between life events and criminal behavior
Life Course Theories
Behavior is static and people don't change; opportunities to commit crime change, dominant latent trait influences human development
Latent Trait Theories
Name of Theorists of "General Theory of Crime"
Gottfredson & Hirschi
Year "General Theory of Crime" was developed
What assumption about human nature does the "General Theory of Crime" make?
Hedonism, we are born with low self-control and high self-control must be taught
What are the four major familial risk factors for delinquency?
Parental divorce/separation, family conflict, parental incompetence, family deviance
Which is a stronger risk factor for delinquency: family conflict or divorce/separation?
family conflict
Which is a stronger risk factor for delinquency: parental incompetence vs. divorce/separation?
parental incompetence
Which policy strategy would be more effective in reducing rates of delinquency: enhancing the quality of the parent-child relationship or decreasing rates of broken homes?
enhancing the quality of the parent child relationship
Which constitutes a stronger risk factor for delinquency: witnessing conflict, abuse, or violence in the home, or being a victim of conflict, abuse, and/or violence in the home?
neither, there is little difference in risk
Physical, sexual, emotional, neglect
child abuse
withholding staples; food, clothing, shelter
How many kids die annually in the U.S. from abuse/neglect?
How many kids die a day from abuse/neglect?
4 3 at the hands of parents 1 at the hands of stranger/acquaintance
Type of child abuse that is a) most prevalent b) 2nd most prevalent c) 3rd most prevalent d) least prevalent
a) neglect b) physical c) sexually d) emotional
What is the relationship between risk for abuse/neglect and age?
Declines as kids get older, the greatest at risk is newborn to 3 years
What portion of the juvenile population is at the highest risk for physical abuse & neglect?
minority youth
What portion of the juvenile population is at the highest risk for sexual abuse?
white, middle-class girls
What family member is most frequently the perpetrator of child abuse?
What are the 3 major risk factors for child abuse?
parents who have been abuse, close relationships with unrelated adults, family isolation or alienation
What are the three possible relationships between child abuse and delinquency?
abuse --> delinquency, delinquency -->, common cause model (something causes both)
What issue lies at the heart of the contemporary debate on parental responsibility?
should parents be held responsible for the delinquent or status-offending behavior of their children?
What is the name of the national survey that monitors gang activity in the U.S.?
National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS)
Why have we seen an increase in gang activity in suburban and rural America?
it has been attributed to a restructuring of the population, there has been a massive movement of people out of the central city to outlying communities and suburbs, once fashionable neighborhoods have declined, downtown areas have undergone extensive renewal, there is intensive police pa…
What is the age a juvenile gang member first hears about a gang?
What is the age a juvenile gang member first becomes involved in violence?
What is the age a juvenile gang member becomes initiated into the gang?
What is the first age a juvenile gang member first fires a gun, gets a gang tattoo, and gets arrested?
Bloods originated in
Crips originated in
Black Gangster Disciples originated in
MS-13 originated in
What happened after law enforcement tried to eradicate MS-13?
When law enforcement crack down and deported members, the deportees quickly created outposts in El Salvador and throughout Central America
2 U.S. cities that have the highest gang membership
LA & Chicago
What is the percentage of U.S. homicide rate that is estimated to be gang-related?
What are the (2) major peer-related risk factors for delinquency?
1. norms- peers who are tolerant of delinquency (what peers say) 2. behavior- peers who are delinquent (what peers do)
What is a stronger predictor of youth outcomes: what peers say or what peers do?
what peers do
Any mind/mood altering substance, mood, senses, psycho active
Initiation measure
lifetime use
5 or more drinks in one setting
binge drinking
Violence/crime committed while high on a drug
psychopharmacological violence/crime
Committed in order to acquire money or funds to buy drugs
Economic compulsive violence/crime
delinquency committed because of involvement in the illegal drug market
systemic violence/crime
In how many American deaths is alcohol implicated each year?
100,000, far more than all other illegal drugs combined
Among juveniles what is the most a) legal drug b) illegal drug c) narcotic used
a) alcohol b) pot c) heroin
What is the prevalence of alcohol used among high-school seniors?
2/3 of high school seniors reported using alcohol in the last year, 73% have tried it at some time during their lifetime, by the 12th grade 56% of American youth report they have "been drunk"

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