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Classification Order
Kingdom King Phylum Phillip Class Can Order Order Family Fairies Genus Golliwogs and Species Spirits
Homologous Traits
Shared derived traits
Analogous Traits or Homoplasies
Traits that evolved separately in different lineages, like bird and bat wings
Wet noses (like a dog) called prosimians Includes lemurs and lorises Important features: mandible is not fused Long snouts Smaller brains postorbital bar
dry furry noses (anthropoids) includes tarsiiformes (tarsiers) platyrrhines (new world primates - south and central america) catarrhines (old worlds primates - africa and asian, apes, gibbons, great apes, humans, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos, hominins) Important featu…
Homologous primate features
five fingers and toes retention of a clavicle Less than 3-1-4-4 dentition (humans are 2-1-2-3) grasping hands and feet nails instead of claws stereoscopic vision reduced sense of smell increased brain size
Order of Epochs
Paleocene 65-56 mya pigs Eocene 56-33 mya eat Oligocene 32-23 mya orange Miocene 23-5.3 mya mucky Plio-pleistocene 5.3-10,000 mya poo
IMI Equation
Intermembral index humerus length + radius length femus length + tibia length X100 long arms have (>100 index), long legs will give (<100) and even length is (=100)
Carrying angle
when the femur angles inwards from the hip towards the knee - unique to humans and their fossil relatives
Earliest member of homo genus
H. Habilis - coexisted with australopiths and used simple stone tools then came H. erectus Then H. sapeins
Anatomically modern homo sapiens
Crural Index
tibia length ------------------ femur length X100
Allen's Rule
Animals in cold climates have shorter extremities
Bergmann's Rule
States that animals living in colder climates should have bigger body masses
Population structure and birth, death, and migration rates
Shaft of a human bone
End of a human bone

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