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egalitarian society
a society in which the only differences in status are based on skill, age, and gender 
ranked society
hierarchy of prestige not linked to age, gender, or ability 
society in which power is organized on a supra-kin basis or by a bureaucracy that uses force 
stratified society
society in which access to key resources is linked to prestige 
urban society
people live in large cities 
a political entity that brings together diverse and heterogeneous group of societies under a single ruler 
writing system where symbols were pressed into wet clay (i.e. Sumerian and Akkadian) 
region along the course of the Tigris and Euphrates centered in modern day Iraq 
royal tombs (Ur)
Leonard Wooly, ornate burial for king and queen 
Tigris and Euphrates
two large rivers that were the focus for the development of Mesopotamia 
the oldest known city in the world, located in southern Iraq 
Uruk Period
period between 4000-3200 BC, first cities were developed 
stepped pyramid found in many Mesopotamian temple precincts 
A Fourth Dynasty Egyptian king who constructed a pyramid at Giza that was slightly smaller than the one constructed by Cheops. THe great Sphinx is located alongside the Cepheren Valley Temple 
A Fourth Dynasty Egyptian king who constructed the first and largest pyramid ever built at Giza 
The site of the pyramids of Cheops, Cepheren, and Mycerinus- monuments representing the apex of pyramid construction in Old Kingdom Egypt 
Along with Abydos, one of the two centers of Egypt during the late Predynastic period and the First Dynasty 
Lower Egypt
The northern part of Egyptian Nile River Valley, includes the Nile Delta 
Last Fourth Dynasty king to build a pyramid at Giza; it was smaller than the other pyramids and partially made with polished granite 
Narmer Pallette
An artifact found at Hierakonopolis, the two sides show the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt 
Nile Valley
Lush vegetation descending down from the highlands of Ethiopia 
Location of the earliest pyramid, the Stepped Pyramid 
Upper Egypt
Southern Egyptian Nile River Valley, ends in a series of cataracts in the area of the Egypt/Sudan border 
One of the two major urban centers of the Harappan Period (2600-1900 BCE) 
Harappan script
Script that has not been deciphered, known for its small carved stone sealings used to mark vessels and bundles 
Indus Valley
Area along the course of the Indus River that covers much of modern Pakistan and the Kutch and Gujarat Provinces of India 
One of the two major urban centers of the Harappan Period (built apx. 2600 BCE) 
Large Maya city with two large pyramids and an elaborate ball court in the center 
Maya hieroglyphs
Writing system of the Maya, currently the only Mesoamerican script that has been substantially deciphered 
Earliest complex society in Mesoamerica, sites are found all across the Gulf Coast of Mexico 
Pyramid of the Moon
Pyramid complex used for both symbolic functions and the production of military supplies and located at the north end of the Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan 
Pyramid of the Sun
The largest monument in Teotihuacan, rising to 64 meters 
Avenue of the Dead
Road that stretches 5 kilometers through the center of Teotihuacan 
Temple of the Feathered Serpent (Quetzalcoatl)
Structure at the back of the Ciudadela adorned with the sculpted heads of a feathered serpent diety 
Enormous city with the population of over 80,000 located in the Valley of Mexico and established around 2,000 years ago 
One of the major Mayan urban centers 
Kin-based farming communities that are an important element of Andean civilization 
Chavin de Huantar
Major ceremonial center in the Andean highlands constructed around 800 BC 
Huaca de la Luna
Massive mudbrick mound at the site of the Moche where actual remains of sacrificial victims were uncovered and found in various states of dismemberment 
Huaca del Sol
Massive mound made of over 140 million mudbricks, located at the site of Moche 
Inca Empire
Empire that thrived for over a century and at its peak ruled over 12 million people from northern Chile to Ecuador 
System of knotted strings used by the Inca to record information 
Engraved monolith at the core of the temple at Chavin de Huantar 
Machu Picchu
Inca royal estate on a high mountain peak at the western end of the Urubamba Valley 
A culture that developed along the Pacific coast of Peru at the same time as the Nasca 
Elaborate burial site on the coast of Peru, indicator of the wealth and violence of the Moche 
Inca name for their empire, means "the four parts together" 
Urubamba Valley
Location of Machu Picchu

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