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FSU PET 3380C - Exam IV Study Guide

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Applied'Exercise'Physiology'Exam'IV'Study'Guide''Exam date: April 24, 2014 'Chapters'28'='bod y'c o mposition ,'C h a p te r '3 0 'e xe r c ise 'a n d 'weight'co n tr o l'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''1.''Know'and'understand'the'principle'of'Archimedes'and'how'it'applies'to'the'procedure'of'human'body'volume'measurements.'(pg'740=743)'= Archimedes*principle=*an*object’s*loss*of*weight*in*the*water*equals*the*weight*of*the*volume*of*water*that*it*displaces.*The*object*submerged*or*floating*becomes*buoyed*up*by*a*counterforce*that*equals*the*w e ight*of*th e*vo lum e*it*disp laces .*The refo re,*the*o bjec t*loses*w eigh t*in*w ate r.*= Specific*gravity=*(weight*in*air)/(loss*of*weight*in*water)*o Ex:*If*a*perso n *weighed *5 0 *kg *in *air*and*45*kg*in*water*(or*5*kg*less),*the*specific*gravity*would*be*50*kg*/*5*kg*=*10.**o In*simp le r*te rms,*specific*g ra v ity *is*a n *o b je ct ’s*h e av in e ss *re la te d *to *it s*v o lu me*(densit y).*= This*is*used*in*hydrostatic*weighingI*comp u te s *b o d y *v o lu me*as*the *difference*between*body*mass*measured*in*air*(Ma)*and*body*w eig ht*m e asu red *du ring *w ater*su b m ers ion *(Ww).*In*hydrostatic*weighing,*you*must*take*residual*lung*volume*and*water*temperature*into*account*(normally*is*m ea su red *right*b efo re*su bmersion*unde rw ater).*Using*these*calc ulatio ns ,*you *can *determine*body*density,*body*fat,*and*percentage*body*fat.*= Body*density*(Db)=*Ma*/*[(Ma*I*Ww)*/*Dw]*–*RLV *(r e sid u a l*lung*volume)*= Siri*equation*determines*percent*body*fat:*%BF=*(495/Density)*–*450*o Fat*weight=*(%*fat/*100)**body*weight*o Lean*body*weight=*Body*weightI*Fat*weight*= General*densities:*Water*=*1.00*g/cc,*fat=*0.90*g/cc,*and*muscle=*1.10*g/cc*= Hydrostatic*weighing*is*known*as*the*“gold*standard”*for*indirect*measurements*2.''Understand'the'differences'and'usefulness'of'different'body'composition'and'anthropometric''''assessment'procedures'discussed'in'the'text'and'class.'''What'are'the'general'assumptions'used'by'indirect'measures.'''o Hydrostatic*weighing:*discussed*in*question*#1*o Bod*PodI*uses*air *p re s su r e *displacement*to*determine*body*fat.*Determines*body*volume*by*measuring*the*initial*volume*of*the*empty*chapter*and*then*the*volume*with*the*person*inside.*Breathes*several*times*to*assess*pulmonary*lung*volume*while*in*the*Bod*Pod.*(pg*743I744)*o Skinfold*and*girth*measurementsI*good*met h o d *to *measure *a d ip ose*tissue *d ire c tly *u n d e r *th e *skin,*internal*fat,*and*whole*body*density.*Principle*is*that*the*amount*of*subcutaneous*fat*is*proportional*to*the*total*body*fat.*Provides*meaningful*information*about*body*fat*and*its*distribution.*(pg*745I747).*These*are*anthropometric*measurements.**o Caliper*used*at*thigh,*iliac,*subscapular,*abdomen,*chest,*triceps*and*biceps*o Sum*of*these*skinfolds*measures*relative*fatness*o Sex*specific*method*(3*sites)*and*7*site*method*! Men=*bicep,*chest,*abdomen*! Women=*triceps,*thigh,*and*iliac*o With*advancing*age,*more*fat*deposits*internally*(visceral)*than*subcutaneously.*Have*to*use*ageIadjusted*generalized*equations*to*predict*body*fat*in*older*men*and*women.*o Girth*measurements*are*done*at*right*biceps,*right*forearm,*abdomen,*buttocks,*right*thigh,*and*right*calf.*The re*are *equ atio ns*to *then *de term ine *bo dy*fa t*from *girth,*bu t*don’t*apply*well*to*those*overly*thin,*overly*obese,*or*high*in*endurance*training.**o Bioelectrical*ImpedanceI*electrode*passes*through*hydrated*fatIfree*body*tissues*than *fat*or*bone*tissues*(pg*748I749)*o Hyperhydration*gives*a*higher*body*fat*measurement*and*hypohydration*gives*a*lower*body*fat*measurement.*Overpredicts*in*lean*people.*o Assesses*total*body*water*well.**o Each*electrode*can*be*placed*on*2*hands*or*hand*and*foot*depending*on*preference.*o DXA*(dual*energy*xIray*absorptiom e try)I *quantifies *fa t *a n d *n o n b one*regio n a l*le a n *b o d y *mass,*including *t he *mineral*con te n t*o f*t h e*b o d y’s *d ee p e r*b o ny *st ructures.*LowIenergy*XIray*be am *penetrate*bone*and*soft*tissue*areas*and*produce*an*image*of*underlying*tissues*and*quantifies*bone*mineral*content,*total*fat*mass,*and*FFM.*Strength*of*prediction*decreases*for*older*and*fatter*subjects.*(pg *756 )***3.''What'are'the'body'composition'differences'between'males'and'females?'(pg'736=737)'o Average*essential*fat*in*women=*12%,*average*essential*fat*in*men=*3%*o The*large*difference*in*these*values*is*due*to*sexIspecific*essential*fat.*Wom en*have*sex*specific*fat*in*the*breast*and*genitals,*lower*body*subcutaneous,*and*intramuscular*fat.*This*is*most*likely*due*to*the*biologically*important*functions*for*child*bearing*and*other*hormoneIrelated*func tion s.*o Storage*fat*in*women=*15%,*storage*fat*in*men=*12%*o Total*fat*in*women*(average)=*25I27%,*total*fat*in*men*(average)=*15%**4.''Understand'the'difference'between'essential'and'storage'fat,'and'the'difference'between'FFM'and'LBM.'(pg.'7 3 6 )'o Esssential*fat=*fat*in*heart,*lungs,*liver,*spleen,*kidneys,*intestines,*muscles,*and*lipidIrich*tissues*of*the*central*nervous*s y ste m*and*b o n e *marrow.*Normal*p h y s io lo g ic*f u n ct io n in g *re q uires*this*fat.*o Storage*fat=*fat*primarily*in*adipose*tissue.*Adipose*energy*reserve*is*about*83%*pure*fat,*2%*protein,*and*15%*water.*Includes*visceral*fatty*tissues*that*protect*the*orga ns*in *thora cic*an d*abdominal*cavities*from*trauma*and*larger*adipose*tissue*underneath*the*skin’s*surface.*o FatIFree*Body*Mass*(FFM)=*represents*the*body*mass*devoid*of*all*extracta b le *fa t*( b o d y *mass*–*fat*mass).**o Lean*Body*Mass*(LBM)=*contains*the*small*percentage*of*nonIsexIspecific*essential*fat*equivalent*to*about*3%*of*body*mass.*o FFM*and*LBM*normally*differ*only*in*essential*fat*component**5.''How'does'energy'balance'and'weight'loss'affect'body'composition?'(pg.'802 )'o By*first*law*of*thermodynamics,*we ight*loss*o ccu rs*w he ne ver*en erg y*ou tpu t*exc eed s*en erg y*intake,*reg a rd les s *of *th e*d ie t’s *macronutrie n t*mixture.'o Most*common*weight*loss*method*is*to*make*sure*energy*input*is*500I1000*kcal*below*energy*expenditure*daily.'o Ex:*if*doing*a*daily*deficit*of*100 0 *kc a l,*th er e*will*be*a*we ek ly*d e fic it*o f*7 0 0 0*k c al,*w h ic h *is*equiva len t *to *0 .9 *kg *o f*b o dy *fa t.'6.''Understand'the'potential'impact'of'diet'and'exercise'on'obesity'(e.g.'what'are'the'differen ce


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