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FSU PET 3380C - Notes

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The blue text is text strictly taken from Moffatt’s slides. As I took notes I incorporated them accordingly. Graphs and photographs are also solely taken from Moffatt’s PowerPointPET3380C February 26, 2013I. Remember VO2 max = [Q max] * [A-VO2difference max]a. VO2 max = [HR max * SV max] * [A-VO2difference max]i. That is how you get maximal oxygen consumptionII. What we are going to talk about is not so much the interplay but how we measure, what are the criteria for establishing it, how it is assessed and whether it is accuratea. Not so much the training affects but the factors that influence itIII. You should already know that VO2max gives information at a couple of different levelsa. If you are an athlete and you perform at an athletic event that requires high aerobic capacity then that means a lot to you in order to maximize your ability to consume oxygeni. Distance runner or midfielder in soccerii. For a weightlifter or sprinter this is less meaningfulIV. VO2max has also a more health perspective as wella. We are centering in around chronic disease prevention and one of the things we know is that maximal oxygen consumption is directly related to a number of factors that are factors of many of these diseasesb. Heart disease for examplei. The higher your aerobic capacity, the more aerobically/physically fit you are, the lower the number of these risk factors related to physical activity1. The way in which cholesterol is transported, the effect on triglycerides, the effect on stress- all affect aerobic capacity; not just athletic performanceV. It requires an integration among several systemsa. If you are going to be able to do something to actually perform the neuromuscular system is involved, you have to be able to take in adequate amounts of air and you have to effectively engage the cardiovascular system to its fullest (that doesn’t just mean pumping out blood but includes circulating it)i. These determine your ability to maximally consume oxygenb. It integrates aspects of the aerobic transport systemi. Pulmonary ventilationThe blue text is text strictly taken from Moffatt’s slides. As I took notes I incorporated them accordingly. Graphs and photographs are also solely taken from Moffatt’s PowerPointii. [Hb]iii. Blood volume and Qiv. Blood flowv. Aerobic metabolism (energetics)1. Mitochondria, enzymes, etc.a. All of these are part of the integrationc. He mentioned the second schematic from last tests printouts that include the integration of all these systems [he didn’t say this to waste breathe, take a look at it and understand]d. VO2max: Provides a quantitative measure of an individual’s capacity for aerobic ATP resynthesis. Important marker rather than of physical fitness. Also defined as the region where oxygen consumption plateaus or increases only slightly with an increase in workload. Differentiate between absolute and relative and when you would use themVI. People who engage in large muscle activity, chronically, tend to have higher aerobic capacitiesa. Another way to look at it: sports will engage the individual in different ways and challenge the system in different waysi. Those two combined will dictate what ones’ aerobic capacity will be1. Sedentary male or female will have a VO2max of ~40-44mL/kga. mL of oxygen consumed per kg of body weight per min2. Trained non-athlete will have a VO2max of ~49-51mL/kga. Due to overloading the system and stimulating it to adapt3. Trained distance runner/endurance will have even higher b. People who engage more muscle mass will have a tendency to have higher VO2maxi. Cross country skiers are top ranked then distance runners1. Depending on sports performance and effortThe blue text is text strictly taken from Moffatt’s slides. As I took notes I incorporated them accordingly. Graphs and photographs are also solely taken from Moffatt’s PowerPointVII. So how do we know when we have maximal oxygen consumption? a. There are criteria pointsi. RER of >1.1ii. Attainment of age predicted max heart rate (220-age)iii. Blood lactate levels of 8-10 mmols or higheriv. A lack of increase of 2.1 ml.kg-1.min-1 with an increase in workload1. No different than 150mL of oxygen consumed per workloadb. What if the test was terminated early or if they reached the circled point on the graph and then stopped? Let us also include the fact that you reached an RER of 1.1 and a lactate level over the criteria requirements and you reached maximal heart rate, did you reach VO2max?i. That only tells you that you have satisfied certain criteria and most people do reach maximum with these but not all the timec. What if the next workload kept going lineraly but you stopped at the circled dot?i. You can’t tell if you reached maximumii. What we look for is a physiological maximum and what that means that in spite of increasing work O2 consumption does not increase, it may even drop iii. All you know about this hypothetical workload without this information is that you reached a VO2peakiv. VO2max is certin when you reach a plateau(asymptote- A line that continually approaches a given curve but does not meet it at any finite distance) like the figure1. We did more work but O2 consumption just wasn’t going to get any higherd. Explain the difference between VO2 max and VO2 peak (highest value attained during a graded exercise test). True vo2 max test will result in volitional exhaustion not fatigue as a result of local fatigue (ie muscle). Typical test should not be any less than about 4-5 minutes and not go beyond 12 minutes.The blue text is text strictly taken from Moffatt’s slides. As I took notes I incorporated them accordingly. Graphs and photographs are also solely taken from Moffatt’s PowerPointe. Intrinsically being motivated can affect performanceVIII. Is there a way we can manipulate VO2max?a. This graph shows that the two peaks were attained during two separate tests, the first peak occurred with 2 minute increases in intensity and the second peak increased every one minute. The results show that even if the test is manipulated (given same type of test) that there should be no affect on VO2 max.b. Blood loss can affect carrying capacity and VO2maxc. Altitude can cause partial pressure of oxygen to decrease which means the loading, delivery and extraction of oxygen decreases causing a decrease in oxygen consumptioni. So you really cant manipulate it in some circumstances but you can artificially through change in the


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