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FSU MUH 2019 - MUH Midterm Study Guide

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MUH Midterm Study GuidePop Music & Identity- What is Pop Music?o Mass mediated musico Much of today’s music comes from roots music (older music)o Always changing- Identity & Differenceo Gender, Sexuality, Race, Ethnicity, Disability/Ability, Place, Classo All discussed throughout the history of Pop Music- Center & Periphery in Pop Musico Center- Mainstream; or place/hot bed of music NYC, Nashville, etc.o Periphery- Not mainstream, but center for subculture’s music Punk in NYC Invigorates mainstream musicBasic Pop Music Terms & Concepts- What is culture?o Socially agreed upon behavior patterns, products, ideas, etc.o Always changing- 3 Streams in Pop Musico European-Americano African-Americano Hispanic-American- Analysis Termso Musical structure or form Verse, Chorus, Verse AABA ABA 12 Bar Blueso Riff- repeated pattern designed to generate rhythmic movement; normally instrumental i.e. the opening riff to “Johnny B. Goode”o Hook- memorable musical phrase or riff; normally vocal i.e. “I’m a Barbie girl…”o Groove- evokes the channeled flow of “swinging” or “funky: Riff or hook can have a groove “Q.U.E.E.N.” by Janelle Monaeo Timbre- quality of sounds; who is singing Jay-Z’s voice vs. Freddie Mercury OR Van Halen Guitar vs. David Bowie Piano- Popular Industry Termso Composer/songwriter- writes music, harmony, melody, etco Arranger- Decides what instruments will be used & howo A&R- Artist and Repertoire- talent seekero Producer- several roles: finance record, artist development, intervenes or creates in recording studio- Theodor Adornoo Marxist against pop musico Argues culture promotes we are individuals defined by tasteo Through capitalism, culture industry manipulates our thinking into buying culturecommodities- High vs. Low Arto High- serious music is transcendent and freeing (i.e. classical music)o Low- controls people (i.e. we discussed Pitbull in class)Minstrel Shows, Blackface, & Stephen Foster- Blackface Minstrelsyo 1st distinctly American form of entertainmento Origins in ritual celebrations for Christmas, new years, etc. Black/whiteface used in these, non-racisto Continued until early 1970s- Early Blackfaceo Blackface in theatre: Othello (normally played by white actor)o Non-racisto Challenged status quo (political commentaries, etc.)o Folk/lower class theaters- Urban whites in NYC- Many Irish (marginalized people like blacks)o The Performance Music based off of Irish/Scottish melodies Commentary on social classes- Thomas Dartmouth Riceo Jim Crow; internal fame Impoverished slave from the south Jim Crow laws known later based on black oppression in south- George Washington Dixono Zip Coon Northern Black Dandy- Mid 1800s minstrelsyo White actors and musicians (racist)o Jim Crow and Zip Coon- no longer subversive; now stereotypeso Performed racist ideas of blackness “good slave” – northern black dandyo Ethiopian songs/plantation songs/coon songso Highly profitable in the south- 1800s Minstrel groupso Virginia Minstrels- Dan Emmett Standardized minstrel ensemble- Banjo, bones, tambourine, and violin- Mr. Interlocutor- like narrator Frequently referenced sex and violenceo Christy’s Original Band of Virginia Minstrels- EP Christy Bigger, better band PG rated songs, drew larger crowds Used Stephen Foster compositions- Stephen Fostero 1st Pop American composero 1st to make living as a song writer Royalties from sales of sheet musico Master at “the hook”o Songs: Camptown Races, Oh! Susanna, Old Folks at Home (Suwannee River)- Blackface Minstrelsy in the 20th centuryo Al Jolson- the Jazz Singer Jewish-American entertainer; 1930s Loud stage voice, exaggerated gestures 1st to use runway in concert The Jazz Singer- 1927 movie, early film with soundRagtime and Tin Pan Alley- Tin Pan Alleyo 1890s: rise of modern American music industryo New Publishers in lower Manhattan on 28th streeto Mainly Eastern European Jewish-Americans- Industry of TPAo Goal was to produce songs/sheet music for a profit- TPA Song plugger- Promote songs in stores, clubs, etc (by playing it live) Vaudeville (turn of century)- Influenced by minstrelsy- Traveling variety shows- Kept tabs on theaters and music stores (# of times song is played)o Style and influences Extremely influential to 20th century pop music- Themes, forms, performance styles, etc.- Incorporated in Jazz and ragtime music- Use of vernacular speecho Song content Early TPA (1890s-1910s)- Sentiment, nostalgia, plantation songs, and romantic songs Later TPA (1920s-1930s)- Privacy, middle class life, new love, lust, lost love, racist and sexist themeso Gendered language, ignorance about races/ethnicities “After the Ball” early TPA (AABA, verse, chorus, verse song)- Composer: Charles K. Harriso Golden Age of TPA 1920s-19030s Irving Berlin “White Christmas”; “God Bless America” George Gershwin “Rhapsody in Blue” Rodgers & Hammerstein: wrote Oklahoma and Sound of Music Songs written for Broadway and “Talkies” Invention of microphone in 1925 lead to crooning (Sinatra, Crosby)o “My Blue Heaven” (Verse, refrain song)- Gene Austin- Rise of the “Standard”o Song that endures beyond its era- Gershwinso “I Got Rhythm”o George and Ira Gershwino Bridge classical and popo Syncopation Shifting melodic accents onto the offbeats- Ragtimeo “rag”- African-American term for syncopationo Rhythmic momentum through banjoo Scott JoplinNew Orleans Jazz- New Orleanso Influx of immigrants (French, Cajun, Creole, etc.)o Slaves allowed to freely express music- Jazzo Believed to mean lively or spirited or sexo Around turn of the 20th centuryo Mix of ragtime, marching bands, mardi gras, etc- Ragtime into early jazz- Jelly Roll Mortono Creole from Nolao Claims to have invented Jazzo Named and popularized the “Spanish Tinge”- Early Jazz Bandso Original Dixie Land Jazz Bando King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band- Later Jazzo Louis Armstrong Was in King Oliver’s Began his own band “Hot 5” and “Hot 7” Part of bringing Nola Jazz to Chicago- “Great Migration” Jazz as art music: “West End Blues”- The Castleso Vernon & Irene Castle Ragtime dance craze during WWI Taught ballroom dancing to middle-class Americans Brief career from 1912-1918 Created the “Castle Walk”- James Reese Europeo Black arranger, composer, etco Musical director for the Castleso


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