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FSU GLY 1000 - Study Guide for Midterm 1

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GLY 1000-02Dynamic EarthStudy Guide for Midterm 1 Spring 20141. Aside from Earth, the terrestrial planets are! Mars, Mercury, and Venus2. The gas giant, or Jovian, planets are! Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune3. Our sun belongs to a galaxy known as! The Milky Way4. Comets are primarily a mixture of! Ice and Dust5. In 2006, The International Astronomical Union produced a major announcement concerning Pluto. Which was..! Pluto has been officially demoted from its former status as one of the nine major !planets6. An ancient greek philosopher concluded (correctly) that the! Earth was spherical (round)7. Who first discovered four moons belonging to Jupiter, proving conclusively that some bodies do not orbit around the Earth?!Galileo8. An important contribution made by Copernicus is his (correct) assertion that the! Sun was the center of Earth’s orbit9. Which of the following is NOT true about the Kuiper Belt?! a. Gerald Kuiper predicted its existence in 1951! b. In 1992, Astronomers discovered millions of icy objects in this region, which is ! ! beyond Neptune! c. It contains an object called Eris, which is 20% larger than Pluto! ~~~d. Pluto and Eris are now both considered planets~~~10. A _______ transmits energy from one point to another in the form of periodic motions and is defined by both the distance between this periodic motion (____) and the number of them that pass a fixed point in a given time interval (________)! Wave, Wavelength, Frequency11. In agreement with the Big Bang Theory, our Universe is! Expanding12. In our current understanding of the Big Bang,! The Universe is considerably older than the Earth13. Researchers have determined that the Universe began expanding subsequent to the Big Bang. When did this event occur?!13.7 Ga ago14. Strong evidence that the Universe is expanding comes from the fact that the light emitted from distant galaxies appears to be! Red shifted15. Waves that are “blue shifted” have shorter wavelengths than those that are “red shifted”! true16. Around 1929, Hubble and other astronomers discovered that the light of distant galaxies displayed red shifts relative to the light of nearby stars. This means that! a. All distant galaxies are moving away from Earth at an immense velocity! b. These galaxies are moving away from a fixed light source! c. The whole Universe is expanding! d. A, B, and C are correct! ~~e. A and C are correct~~17. First generation stars tend to be! large and hot18. The Hubble Telescope took this photo in 2009 of an object 7,500 light years away. What is it?!Nebulae19.By far the most common elements in the Universe and in our solar system are! Hydrogen and Helium20. Differentiation of the core from the mantle early in Earth’s history was possible because the planet was _________ at the time! very hot21. The metal alloy that makes up the core of Earth is ____________, as compared to the rocky mantle.u. denser22. The shape of Earth’s magnetic field is approximately that of a ____________.! dipole (such as that produced by a bar magnet)23. If one were to ride a hot air balloon up into the atmosphere, one would experience the concentration of gases ____________.! becoming less dense24. Leftovers from the protoplanetery disk that formed our Solar System after the Big Bang can be found where?! Oort cloud25. As seismic (earthquake-generated) waves travel downward and reach the Moho, they ____________.! speed up26. An aurora (shown below) is produced when ____________.! solar wind particles are directed toward the poles and excite atmospheric gases27. Which of the following is NOT true about comets and asteroids?! both are composed of rock and ice28. Substances that can be transformed to a gas at relatively low temperatures are termed ____________.! volatiles29. Hydrocarbons, such as petroleum and natural gas, are classified as ____________.! organic materials30. Topographically, most of the ocean floor is made up of ____________.! ocean plains (2.5–4.5 km below sea level)31. Which of the following is most representative of Earth’s hydrosphere?! surficial freshwater, the oceans, groundwater, and atmospheric water32. In the whole Earth, the four most common elements are oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and ____________.! iron33. If you were measuring the elevation of a mountain, you would be measuring variation in ____________, whereas if you were doing the same on a mid-ocean ridge, you would be measuring variation in ___________.! topography; bathymetry34. Glass is different from a mineral because it _____________.! does not have atoms arranged in an orderly pattern35. Which of the following is NOT an example of sediment?! a. sand ! b. ground-up seashells ! c. cobbles on a beach ! ~~d. None of the above are correct.~~36. A silica-rich igneous rock that has coarse crystals and which makes up much of the continental crust is ____________.! granite37. During a journey to the center of the Earth, one would experience temperature ____________.! and pressure both increasing38. Heat transfer that occurs through the movement of a fluid, driven by temperature differences among various points within the fluid, is termed ____________.! convection39. The densest layer of Earth is the ____________.! inner core40. The thickness of the Earth’s crust varies from ____________.! 7 to 70 km41. Which layer of the Earth has the greatest density?! core42. When you are warmed by the Sun, you are experiencing _____________, as opposed to when you burn yourself touching a metal object whose other end is being heated you are experiencing ________.! radiation; conduction43. The Image below shows ______. where a hot liquid rises into a cooler material, and heat then conducts from the hot liquid into the cooler material!! advection44.From left to right, correctly label each section of this slice of the Earth.! crust, upper mantle, transition zone, lower mantle, liquid outer core, solid inner ! core45. As compared to the rocks that make up the crust, Earth as a whole is ____________.! considerably more dense46. The boundary between the crust and the mantle is marked by a seismic-velocity discontinuity called ____________.! the moho47. As compared to ultramafic rocks, mafic rocks have a ____________.! greater proportion of silica48. Ophiolite sequences are important to geologists because they preserve ____________.! oceanic crust49. The distinction between the crust and


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