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Bio Lab ReviewLAB 1- Explain how the process of science is non-linear using an example from one of your lab investigations: o I learned that the scientific method does not have to be applied to all lab experiments. During the finding of the bones in LAB 1, I found thatour predictions of the creature changed with the more bones we found. This relates to science as scientists find new information and change their minds about certain experiments and theories. - Observation: any information gathered through at least one of your senses.- Hypothesis: tentative testable explanations from inferences that is groundedin observations explanation for a narrow set of phenomena.- Inference: is an assumption that is based on observations and past experiences. (Used to form hypothesis)- Experiment: testing a hypothesis.- Data: information collected during investigations and experiments.- Evidence: is the product of data interpretation; it is the justification for whether a hypothesis is supported or not supported- Analysis - Conclusion: finding a resolution.- Revise hypothesis - Develop more prediction/questions - What is the peer review process and why is it an essential component ofscience?o The review process is important for new discoveries and finding faults that the original experimenter might not have seen. Publicity shared procedures help the scientific community spread ideas and compare results. These shared experiments can eliminate biases, misconduct, errors, or malpractices.- Explain how an observation is different from an inference; how data is different than evidence, and how a hypothesis is different from a prediction.o Observation is different from inference in that it is gathered through at least one of your senses, where as an inference is just an assumption based off of observations.o Data differs from evidence in that data are measurements, where evidence is the interpretation of data.o Hypothesis and prediction are different because a hypothesis is a testable explanation, while an inference is the possible outcome of a hypothesis. - Scientific Method:o Observation/Questiono Hypothesiso Experiment (Tentative Prediction)o Hypothesis Supported Develop more predictions/Questions Conclusiono Hypothesis NOT Supported Revise Hypothesis Continue testingLAB 2- What are the characteristics of living organisms?o Growth, reproduction, maintain homeostasis, sense and respond to stimuli, and obtain/use energy (GRMSO)- Homeostasis: a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment.- Nervous system: the network that coordinates and controls all of these life functions in animals.- Explain how organisms sense and respond to the environment and give an example.o There are sensory neurons that the CNS processes from outside and inside the body. Motor neurons control the contraction of skeletal muscle in response to instructions from the CNS. Some animals lack a brain, but have nerve nets of sensory and motor neurons that control muscles so they respond to stimuli with appropriate behaviors. A cricket detects a predator with its antennae, sensory structure. Its motor structure responds with its wings and limbs that help it to flee the area. The environmental signal would instill fear within the creature, which would be in its nervous system.- Environmental signal: - Sensory structure on body: eyes and skin- Sensory neuron: convey information from both inside and outside the body to the CNS.- Motor neuron: control the contraction of skeletal muscle in response to instructions from the CNS.- Motor structure: - Observable behavior: - Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the nervous tissue outside the CNS that collects sensory information and transmits instructions.- Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and spinal cord- Explain how a cell’s specialized structure makes it well suited to carry out a specialized function.o Some examples:o 1) A red blood cell that has to carry oxygen through narrow blood vessels Structure: shaped like a disk with indention in the middle. Function: bind and transport oxygen through circulatory systemo 2) A nerve cell that has to transport information to other nerve cells or muscle cells Neuron Structure: long extensions Neuron Function: transmits electronic signals very rapidly over long distances.o 3) An epithelial skin cell that forms a protective barrier around your body Structure: cells are a tightly bound continuous layer Function: cover the surface of the body and line organs and cavities within the body- What are 4 structures both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common and why are these essential structures for cells to have?o Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, DNA, Ribosomes- Cell membrane: phospholipids bilayer, with embedded proteins, protects thecell.- DNA: double helix structure of nucleic acids, information to direct cellular processes.- Cytoplasm: the gelatinous aqueous interior of all cells. - Ribosomes: organelles that synthesize proteins by translating instruction from the DNA.LAB 3- Explain the term homeostasis. Support your explanation with an example.o Maintaining a stable internal environment even when the external environments change. Stability is referred to as “steady state.” Your body maintains a stead internal temperature regardless of the temperature of your surroundings. This is called thermoregulation.- Regulation of water in body fluids: sweating- Osmoregulation: the amount of water in the bloodstream that controls the concentration of dissolved molecules in the blood and also determine blood volume and blood pressure.- Blood sugar: - Explain how drugs that interact with your nervous system also have effects on your other body systems.o Alcohol causes the release of ADH, resulting in excessive urinary water loss because the brain cannot signal the kidneys to reabsorb water. Alcohol would be a depressant as it slows down the nervous system and decreases heart rate.- Excitatory neurotransmitters : amplify nerve impulses.- Inhibitory neurotransmitter : block nerve impulses.- Stimulant : stimulates the affect portion of the nervous system by either increasing the effect of an excitatory neurotransmitter OR blocking the effect of an inhibitory one.- Depressant : have the opposite effect, they either block the action of the excitatory neurotransmitter or increase

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FSU BSC 1005L - Bio Lab Review

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