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BSC1005LStudy GuideInvestigation 1: The Nature and Process of ScienceExplain how the process of science is non-linear using an example from one of your lab investigations-The process of science is non-linear because as scientists we are constantly revisingour predictions and approaches when solving a problem. An example of this is when we tried to figure out what prehistoric animal our “fossilized bones” belonged to. In order to do this we had to look at different bones and form inferences. We also sometimes had to revise these inferences to figure out what the animal was. This shows that the process of science is non-linear and is actually very complex.What is the peer review process and why is it an essential component of the process of science?-The peer review process is feedback about and review of scientific idea by other experts. It is an essential component of the process of science because it keeps scientists honest and allows for a new perspective. Explain how an observation is different from an inference; how data is different than evidence, and how a hypothesis is different from a prediction.-An observation is just the information gathered from your senses, while an inference is the assumption based on that observation. Data is just information gathered during an experiment, while evidence is the product of interpretation of data. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation that needs to be proven or disproven; while a prediction is just what you think will happen from what you have seen.Essential Vocab- Observation: any information gathered through at least one of your senses.- Hypothesis: tentative explanations- Experiment: tentative prediction- Inference: an assumption that is based on observations and past experiences.- Evidence: the interpretation of data and the justification for whether a hypothesis is supported or not supported.Investigation 2: Animal Structures and ProcessesWhat are the characteristics of living organisms?-The characteristics of living organism include being able to grow, reproduce, maintain homeostasis, sense and respond to stimuli, and obtain and use energy.Explain how organisms sense and respond to the environment and give an example.-Organisms sense and respond to their environment through the nervous system mostly. First there must be some sort of environmental signal, such as a noise or feeling.Then there are sensory structures, which are controlled by sensory neurons that convey information from both in and outside the body to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Then, the CNS gives instructions to motor neurons that control the skeletal muscles. An example would be if a rabbit in the forest heard a noise from behind them. This would be the environmental signal and the rabbit hearing it would be it using its sensory neuron. The CNS would then decide what to do and then have the motor neuron carry out its bidding. Explain how a cell’s specialized structure makes it well suited to carry out a specialized function.-A cell’s specialized structure makes it well suited to carry out a specialized function because it is purposely made for that function. For example, a red blood cell is specifically made to transport oxygen throughout the body and since there can be some very narrow blood vessels a red blood cell must have a shape that will be able to go through these. They have a biconcave shape that allows them to have more surface area and makes it easier for them to travel throughout the body. Another example is a nerve cell that has to transport information to other nerve/muscle cells. These cells are also specialized. Nerve cells (neurons) have dendrites and axons that receive and transmit impulses and these impulses are carried out through a space called a synapse. This is how they are specialized and how itmakes them better suited to do this rather than just being a regular cell. The last example is of an epithelial skin cell that needs to form a protective barrier around your body. Epithelial cells in general have certain differentiations from other cells that make them unique such as having the endings of neurons and that fact that they are avascular, butfor our purpose the important difference is that epithelial cells can slough off and glide in order to replace dead cells, which allows them to maintain a closed barrier to the external environment. Basically, having these cells be specialized means that we don’t have gaping holes in our body every time a skin cell dies. What are 4 structures both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common and why are these essential structures for all cells to have?-DNA, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes are the four structures prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common. They are essential for many reasons. DNAis essential because it contains your genetic material, which you need to exist as anything. A plasma membrane is important because it separates the cell from the surrounding environment and functions as a selective barrier for the import and export of certain materials. Cytoplasm is important because it keeps cell organelles in their proper position. Ribosomes are essential because they are where protein synthesis takes place, which is a vital process for your body. Investigation 3: The Function and Responses of Living SystemsExplain the term homeostasis. Support your explanation with an example.-Homeostasis is basically the ability to maintain a stable internal environment even when the external environment changes. Some examples of this are thermoregulation, regulation of water in body fluids, osmoregulation, and blood sugar. A more in depth example is when you exercise. So when you exercise your body starts getting hot because of all the energy production and your brain activates cooling mechanisms via your nervous system, which tells the circulatory system to tell the blood vessels near your skin to release heat, which is causes sweating. This sweat is produced to cool your body down in order to maintain a stable internal temperature. This is an example of homeostasis. Another one is when you’re cold and your body starts to shiver. This shivering is stimulated because you need to move your muscles in order to generate heat. So the shivering is an act of homeostasis from your body. Even though it is cold outside your body maintains a stable internal temperature by making you shiver. Explain how drugs that interact with your nervous system also

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FSU BSC 1005L - Study Guide

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