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FSU BSC 1005L - Bio Lab Review Questions

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Bio Lab Review Questions1. Define homeostasis and how your body maintains homeostasis: process of maintaining a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment • EXAMPLE (be able to explain; SHORT ANSWER): body temperature, oxygen in blood, urine and PH2. Know the Standard Deviation Equation (larger N = smaller S) n= sample size • If you decrease your sample size, SD will be higher3. The process of science is NONLINEAR• Science always changes, experiments vary, they revisit and revise their answers and hypothesis 4. Scenario from Pre-Test: be able to write a hypothesis, prediction, describe the difference between hypothesis and prediction. 5. Hypothesis: a tentative, testable explanation for a narrow set of phenomena (organisms supplemented with nutrients grow taller because nutrients are a limiting factor for growth)6. Prediction: specific toward experiment based on hypothesis (Flowers supplemented with fertilizer will grow taller than flowers not supplements with fertilizer)• Always write hypothesis on top of prediction 7. How do cells with in the body carryout different functions such as nerve and skin cells (HINT: all cells have some DNA)• Explain and draw nerve or cells: NERVE CELL (transmit electronic signals very rapidly over long distances –structure: long extensions), SKIN CELL (cover surface of body and lines organs and cavities with in the body- structure: cells are tightly bound, continuous layer) • Dendrites, axon, leads to genes being turned on8. Meiosis: parent cell divides twice, while the chromosomes double only once, to produce four daughter cells (the gametes)- only found in sex cells9. Mitosis: produces two daughter cells that are exact copies of the parent cells (found in everything except sex cells)10. Recombination: cells line up and share/ crossover chromatids 11. Independent Assortment: cells line up and pair in different orders • Not in mitosis because of no homologous chromosomes pairing (LOOK AT DIAGRAM FOR BOTH FOR BETTER VISUAL)12. Two examples of symbiotic relationship between bacteria • Saliva and digestive system- good strands of ecoli producing vitamin C• Bacteria for fermentation of food like yogurt • Leech on human 13. Stabilizing selection: intermediate phenotype is always selected (babies with low birth weight don’t survive as well as high birth weight, mid-weight babies are favored) 14. Directional selection: one phenotype goes toward one extreme head when environment changes (antibiotic containing environments favor resistant strains of bacteria/ white moths had advantage on bark because predator couldn’t see them, industrial revolution produced soot that blanketed the trees and allowed dark moths to be more difficult for predators to spot)15. Disruptive selection: two contrasting phenotypes (African finch lives in an area there only small and large seeds are available, never intermediate ones, and birds with either small or large seeds are selected for because medium beaks are inefficient at cracking both sizes and seeds)16. Invasive Species: not known to area and no predators• Outcompete native species• Disrupt food webs• Have very fast growth17. Nutrient cycle that depends on bacteria: NITROGEN18. Nutrient comprises up the backbone of DNA: Phosphorus backbone19. Phosphorus backbone/ nitrogenic base (base pairs), sugars: make up DNA 20. Situation: Increased algal growth, low water clarity, reduced light penetration • These are all consequences of increased nutrients input in the eutrophic ecosystem • Also known as nutrient runoff21. Name three types of factors that disrupt balance of ecosystem • Invasive species • Pollution• Excess nutrient input22. ***Which is not a domain discussed in class- PROTISTA • Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya are all domains • **bacteria and eukarya are where PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS are found (on test)23. Primary Producer: photosynthesizing organisms are able to trap light energy from the sun • EXAMPLE: terrestrial grass and plants, aquatic plants and algae24. Primary Consumer: herbivores, insects, small fish, snails that consume primary producers25. Secondary Consumer: rats, frogs, large fish that eat primary consumers. • Arrows in a trophic food web show transfer of energy 26. When does grazing become predation?• Grazing: herbivore that eats grass, but not the whole thing and it is able to grow back (Cows eating grass)• Predation: When a rabbit eats a whole carrot including roots (kills the plant and eats the whole thing) 27. What type of organism did we sample with our pitfall traps?• Terrestrial (land) and mobile invertebrates 28. What curve tells a scientist if they have collected enough samples to estimate the number of species in the habitat?• Species Accumulation Curve• When it flattens off or steadies off, we have enough samples 29. ** Evolution occurs by CHANCE, then it is passed down through many generations30. Can a trait be passed down if it is not genetically determined? • NO: offspring’s won’t get certain phenotypes31. What makes an organism “fit”?• High offspring count with high survival rates to maturity • They need to be able to reproduce to be fit32. Two lizards look similar, share the same ecological niche, can mate but are unable to produce offspring. Are they considered the same species based on biological species?• NO: they must produce fertile offspring to be the same specie 33. Which is not a type of prezygotic barrier?• Mule produced by a horse and donkey is not fertile (postzygotic barrier/ Reduced hybrid fertility)• Prezygotic Barriers include: temporal isolation (when mating occurs at different season or times of day), habitat isolation (when populations live in different habitats and do not often meet), behavioral isolation (when little or no sexual attraction exists between populations), mechanical isolation (when structural differences prevent fertilization), gametic isolations (when eggs and sperm fail to unite) • Postzygotic Barriers: Reduced Hybrid Viability (when hybrid zygotes fail to develop to sexual maturity- 1st generation always dies off), Reduced Hybrid Fertility (when hybrids do not produce functional gametes- Horse + Donkey = Mule), Hybrid Breakdown (when hybrids of the next generation are feeble or sterile- healthy, but 2nd generation dies off)34. What is peer review process and why is it essential?• Makes science better and helps expand research• Keeps

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