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Bio Lab Post Test Study GuideObservation vs. Inference-observation: what you see-inference: what it's based onTheory vs. Hypothesis-theory: for wide range of phenomenon-hypothesis: for narrow set of phenomenonAutomatic vs. Somatic-automatic: immediate response-somatic: you think before you reactMitosis Vs. Meiosis-mitosis: only 2, daughter cells, identical, 46->46, diploid, somatic-meiosis: 4, division, not identical, haploid, independent assortment, recombination Abiotic vs. Biotic-abiotic: non living-biotic: livingStabilizing Selection vs. Directional vs. Disruptive vs. Sexual-stabilizing: favors immediate phenotypes and typically occurs in more stable environments where extreme phenotypes are selected against (you want the middle)-directional: shifts the overall makeup of a population by selecting for one extreme (ie. pepper moth)-disruptive: result in a balancing of 2 contrasting phenotypes, typically occurs in a patchy environment -sexual: specific form of natural selection. individuals with certain traits are more likely than other individuals ti obtain mates.Characteristics of all living organisms-order-regulation-reproduction -adaption-growth/development-energy utilization-response to enviormentBasic components of cells:(prokaryotic/eukaryotic have in common!)-cell membrane: protection-cytoplasm: interior-ribosomes: protein-DNA: genetic info/transportsInhibitory vs. Excitatory Neurotransmitters -inhibitory: block nerve impulses-excitatory: amplify nerve impulsesMeiosis and Genetically Diverse Gametes-independent assortment: homologous chromosome pairs line up for cell division each has 2 copies (its random) go to gametes-recombination (crossing over): exchange genetic material Gametogensis (production of gametes)-spermatogenesis: testes, production of sperm from one spermatocyte -oogenesis: ovaries, production of 1 egg, 3 polar bodies (oocyte)Domains-bacteria-eukara: (membrane bound nuclei) animal, fungi, plant, protist -archaea: can live in extreme conditions-protist: animal/plant/fungi -"like"Biotic Interactions -competition: one organism deprives another of a resource -predation: one kills another, kills completely-grazing: takes only part of its prey-parasitism: 2 organisms of differ species living close together-mutualism: both organisms receive net benefits-detritivory: consumption of dead organic matter -biodiversity: diverse ecosystem=more resistant to natural disturbances (or human caused)-gel electrophoresis: electric current, fragments separate by size-DNA: 100s of genes, tightly packaged as chromatin to fit compactly in cells-alleles: different versions of same genetwins: same genes, different phenotype -epigenome: controls whether genes are expressed or silenced -epigenic tags: researchers use to identify biomarkers-sample size (the larger) the smaller the standard deviation --n goes up, SD goes down-ribosomes: synthesized proteins in pro/eukaryotic cells-psychedelic drugs: directly interact with the nervous system-sexual reproductions=NOT a characteristic of all living organisms-nitron cycle: dependent on bacteria to convert it between the atmosphere form and the forms that can enter the food web-Abiotic component phosphorus: essential for living (biotic) organism because it is a primary component, DNA backbone and cell membrane-bacteria and eukarya make up the 3 domains system including pathogenic microorganisms -biological species concept: organisms that are able to interbreed/produce fertile offspring-post zygotic barrier example: mule produced from donkey/horse=NOT fertile-type of variation passed to offspring: all characteristics that are genetically determined -prostate gland secreats alkaline (basic) fluid during ejaculation in order to neutralize the pH of the vagina -FSH=hormone that stimulates maturation of a follicle-estrogen/progesterone indirectly inhibit maturation of follicle -cell division by meiosis generates genetically diverse gametes-not mechanical that produces genetic variation in populations=mutations in somatic cells-not necessary for tool of electrophoresis=DNA fragments of identical size-viral STI's need a host-not possibly cause of cancer=activation of tumor suppressor genes by lifestyle

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FSU BSC 1005L - Study Guide

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